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❶I was happy to get appreciation words from my professor for the paper I submitted. The essence of this approach is critical for organisational success, so that they can have a better understanding of their customer behaviours Solomon et al.

literature review purchase intention

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literature review of purchase intention

Additionally, with the extremely rapid progress of information and technology, not only did the development of the national economy advance quickly, but also international businesses had increased growth as well.

As these companies grew, many of them began utilizing the marketing strategy of exhibition venues, which contributed to the development of the meeting, incentive, convention, and exhibition MICE industry Recently, the bike industry in Taiwan is without exception.

It has held lots of international sports cycling exhibition for selling its own brand of sports bike by means of the MICE promotion platform, the Taiwanese sports bike industry has participated lots of international sports cycling exhibition for selling its own brand of sports bike.

Compared to the consumers who do not attend exhibitions, the visitors to the MICE have a higher level of product consumption, and vendors positively appraise their experience in host countries Moreover, numerous cities regard the development of the MICE as a strategy for a new era of urban development and a path to the development of local infrastructure.

The statistical results of the research showed that the average consumption of the visitors brought by conventions and exhibitions was two to three times that of normal tourists; the travel consumption brought by conventions and exhibitions accounted for 30 percent of the total travel consumption Furthermore, Breiter and Milman explain that most exhibitions held at convention centers are annual or circulating ones as well as consumers with positive experiences in attending exhibitions should increase their willingness to revisit these type of venues.

Consequently, whether exhibition activities are held successfully depends on whether the marketing service techniques of the hosting organizations are good enough to attract people.

According to numerous studies, with the advancement of the experiential economy, the concept of marketing has become a heavily discussed issue among management scientists and economists 24,16, Hence, the marketing concept has gradually evolved from product-, sale-, society-, and relation-oriented into the experiential-oriented marketing as the primary core of business activities. In , Schmitt 28 is the first person who integrates experiential marketing concepts and compares traditional marketing with experiential marketing comprehensively.

Differing from traditional marketing, which emphasizes the performance and function of products, experiential marketing focuses more on the function and efficiency of products and the brand image 7, Thus, the experiential method has become a popular trend in increasing the performance of various industries. In , Kotler 17 suggests that management should satisfy customer demands. He further encourages businesses to develop marketing strategies by looking from the viewpoint of its customers.

The assumption is that if enterprises focus on what the customer wants, this form of marketing should increase customer purchase intention, and moreover, companies will obtain increased profits from these customers. A higher degree of customer satisfaction will lead to higher customer purchase intention, positive public praise, greater competitive advantages, and higher market share 1, Purchase intention means the likelihood that a consumer will buy a particular product; the higher the purchase intention, the greater the purchase probability 8, Furthermore, establishing a good relationship with customers to promote customer purchase intention is the most important task for industries in marketing 2.

Through experiential marketing strategies, if customers actually experience products, their intent to actually purchase the exhibited products is usually also increased Through sensory and emotional experiences, consumers are both directly or indirectly influenced which, in turn, increases the likelihood of customer purchase intention.

Customer satisfaction is the main factor influencing consumer behavior To maintain sustainable development on the market, modern enterprises should increase their profits mainly by increasing customer purchase intention Therefore, through the techniques, assessments and applications of experiential marketing, exhibitors can determine whether the real effect and performance of experiential marketing are helpful in promoting consumer purchase intention.

Several scholars, including Hsieh and Li , Blackwell, R. F , and Holbrook indicate that there is a positive correlation between experiential marketing and purchase intention. These findings show that through experiential marketing, customers attending bicycle product exhibitions can provide immediate feedback on the products on display at these venues. Based on the literature review, experiential marketing can certainly establish an interactive relationship between customers and service personnel at exhibitions, and customers are more likely to have positive evaluations of these products.

Consequently, this research sets out three hypotheses as follows: There is a significant difference in experiential marketing across different demographic variables.

There is a significant correlation between experiential marketing and the purchase intention of customers participating in exhibitions. Experiential marketing has a significantly positive relationship and influence on purchase intention. The investigation of this study lasted for four days, from March 17th, to March 20th, Then, the researcher conducted convenience sampling, selecting questionnaires for research investigation.

Research Instruments There were three research instruments used in this study. The first instrument was personal information including gender, age, marital status, education level, monthly income, residence, and so forth. The experiential marketing scale of this study included 14 questions on five experiential attributes: To ensure that the scales used in this study were consistent, efficient, and suitable, a validity and reliability analysis was implemented after the scales were gathered.

Concerning the validity analysis, the questionnaires were created based on the theories and measurement instruments of Huang 11 and Hsu Then, the questionnaires were examined by scholars and experts, and a factor analysis was conducted to increase the efficiency of the content, thus building the content validity of the questionnaires.

The factor analysis showed that the cumulative explained variance of both experiential marketing and purchase intention are up to Hence, the measurement instruments used in this study meet the expected standards of validity.

Both scales have an overall internal consistency up to. Number of Observations This study adopted a more conservative method under the restriction of accuracy and reliability. Differences in overall experiential marketing of potential consumer from different demographics were examined by an independent sample T test and a one-way ANOVA.

Furthermore, a one-way ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in all attributes of experiential marketing across customers with different backgrounds, as can be seen in the Table 1. Analysis of variance assessing differences in the five attributes of experiential marketing across customers with different backgrounds.

Correlation Analysis between Experiential Marketing and Customer Purchase Intention This study implemented a Pearson correlation coefficient to analyze the correlation among the averages of each variable.

The overall correlation between experiential marketing and purchase intention reached a significant level, as can be seen in Table 2. There was a moderate positive correlation between most of the five attributes of experiential marketing and purchase intention, as can be seen in Table 3. Correlation between purchase intention and the five attributes of experiential marketing.

Table 3 showed that the higher the experiential evaluation those customers obtained from the Taipei International Sports Cycle Show, the higher their purchase intention would be. Customers gave a fairly high evaluation of the perception and reaction to this exhibition.

Regression Analysis of Purchase Intention on Experiential Marketing This study aims to investigate whether an experiential marketing method will be transferred to customer purchase intention of a certain product. First, a regression analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of experiential marketing on customer purchase intention. The analysis resulted in an F-value of Therefore, if enterprises can emphasize experiential marketing activities at exhibitions, customer purchase intention of a certain product on exhibition can be promoted.

Second, another regression analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of the attributes of sensory, emotional, thought, action, and associative experiences on customer loyalty. The analysis result produced an F value of Without attitude, an alternative brand may be purchased Fazio et al.

Good attitude towards the product might move to a purchase decision. Attitude is connected to behavioural intention and buying forecast Fishbein, Attitude is what we can feel about a concept that could be a person, a brand, a category, an ideology or other things we can think about and applying feeling into East, Many writers agree that attitude is an evaluation. Attitude can be the most important factor in consumer decision process because they theoretically conclude that a consumer evaluation of an object product, brand or company represent positive or negative feeling and behavioural towards the object Belch and Belch, Attitude influences each stage of the buying decision, as the simple assumption that attitudes causes behaviour to ignores other determinants such as personality traits, self-image, motives, behaviour and the social and physical setting in which the action occurs Foxall, Consumer purchasing behaviour tends to determine what it exactly is that drives consumers when making buying decisions.

Many studies have been performed including the above mentioned with regard to consumer behaviourism. On the one hand Figure 1, depicts two inputs of consumer behaviour, namely the behaviour setting and the learning history. The learning history refers to past experiences — both positive and negative — of the consumer. On the other hand, three possible consequences of consumer behaviour are depicted in Figure 1, respectively; utilitarian reinforcement, informational reinforcement and aversive consequences.

Utilitarian reinforcement refers to the satisfaction consumers perceive when buying, owing and consuming economic goods. Of course the informational reinforcement outcome is not applicable to every product that can be bought, as one will not obtain any social status from buying nails for example, on the other hand, people are often judged by the car they drive, making cars an excellent example of the informational reinforcement.

Lastly, aversive consequences can be described as the costs of consuming; having to wait in line, not being able to buy alternative products, relinquishing money, etc. Accumulation purchases refer to consumer behaviour related to certain kinds of collecting, saving and instalment buying. Hedonism or pleasure purchases refer to the consumption of popular entertainment.

Foxall found that green consumer behaviour cannot be linked to a specific category but can be found in any of the four categories. Final causes extend outwards from the person who behaves, each fitting in the next pattern Foxall, Hence, making a sum fits into doing homework, which fits into taking the math class, which fits into studying, which in turn fits into providing yourself with a good future.

Every step cause is wider than the previous one and therefore more embracing, making each cause more final Rachlin, This implies that mental phenomena such as intentions, attitudes as well as pain are all defined as extended patterns of behaviour. Teleological behaviourism helps to understand why consumers only consider only a few brands out of all the brands they can choose from when making a buying decision Foxall, Teleological behaviourism also helps understanding why consumers change patterns and decide to buy another brand than they usually do.

It does so by acknowledging the conflict consumers can face between utilitarian reinforcement and informational reinforcement. Both radical behaviourism and teleological behaviourism help to understand consumer behaviour, but both are not complete explanations of it, especially when it comes to breaking of patterns. Up to a certain extend teleological behaviourism provides an explanation for the breaking of patterns, as explained in the previous paragraph.

However, picoeconomics provides a much better explanation when it comes to intertemporal bargaining. How an individual prioritizes the rewards available depends on personal rules. However, seldom such a trade-off between short-term smaller sooner and longterm larger later is isolated from other choice conflicts Foxall, Of which, as Foxall points out, directly relates to green consumer behaviour.

The benefits of the long-term choice are always greater than the benefits of the short-term choice, to make a rational decision in which the total rewards obtained is the greatest is a matter bringing imagining the long-term rewards forward in time. When the opportunity to behave emerges the consumer has two choices, either he stays loyal to his buying pattern, or, the consumer changes his pattern based on a variable presented by the current behaviour setting.

This is a typical situation where the consumer prefers a poorer pay-off which might be temporarily because it is available sooner, than a better long-term pay-off, which would be better for the consumer.

Consumers apply this behaviour occasionally in the case of brand choice, but much more often at inter-product choices Foxall, This leads to the question why consumers apply this kind behaviour.

Foxall argues that just as in radical behaviourism and teleological behaviourism, the consumer tries to maximize the totality of reinforcement available to him, both informational as utilitarian reinforcement. However, it need to be noted that consumers often do this with a short-term perspective and therefore maximize their reinforcement on each shopping trip, which might be not the maximum reinforcement that can be obtained when a longterm perspective is applied. The dilemma consumers face is a conflict between informational reinforcement maximizing the price and utilitarian reinforcement ensure an acceptable level of quality.

However, this does not mean that consumers will always buy the cheapest product available. The usual consumer strategy is to: In electronics markets the consumer will make the decision to purchase technological products to fulfil and satisfy their desire. Also, there are several factors that can influence consumer to select which product they will use for provide their needs, such as;.

According to Boone and Kutz they have stated on this point that in every consumer belong to the each social group. As earlier mostly experience can come from a group of family, neighbourhood groups, work and community. Hence, many consumers are often strongly making decision by people who the consumer knows and trusts. Many marketers understand consumer behaviour from economics. Especially, the assumption between people and rational in their behaviour by identified the behaviour that relating to price, consumer income, consumer taste, and quality of products.

Therefore, the demand of medicine is positivity associated with low price of medicine, high price for products substitutes high level of consumer income, high education, high tastes. Also, the quality of products included with services. Each person is driven by variety of desires and pressures that influence behaviour by values, attitudes, personality and beliefs.

This could help marketer expected the personal influence from the field of psychology. Also, they need to understand the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. Solomon stated that a consumer decision is a response to a problem. Schiffman and Kanuk depicted that decision is the selection of an action from two or more alternative choices. It means that there must be more that one alternative choice whenever a customer is making a decision.

Kotler pointed out that the consumer buying process is the sum total of alternative, purchase decision, and purchase evaluation. The diagram below gives a brief explanation of consumer decision making process. Five-Stage Model of the buying process: Consumer searches for information after they have recognised the need. The products can be important in one of the elements to influence consumer to select the choice and acquisition process. On the other hand, as noted by some authors including Hupfer and Gardner and Kassarjian , not all purchasing decisions involve equally the same high level of customer interest and engagement.

However, Hoyer suggested that it is impossible to directly apply these theories to every aspect of decisions making. For a better understanding in a certain product category, customers use a variety of criteria in deciding which store to visit and which product to buy, including selection, price, quality, service, value, and convenience Boone and Kurtz, According to Kotler , consumer use store and product attribute varies among consumers. Management must, however, know which attribute consumers consider and the important the consumer places on them.

Evaluation of alternative that consumer can make decision can be made from price, location, quality and pharmacists relationship to choose a pharmacy David Holdford, The evaluation process is particularly helpful in influencing customers, particularly, when customers are familiar with the desire product, their purchase behaviour tends to be quite small, consisting on average between three and five brands Schiffman et al.

Further, Bruner and Pomazal state that to be able to conduct a purchase the problem recognised needs to be defined.


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A review of literature on consumers' online purchase intentions Therefore, it can be stated that in the case of Bangladeshi consumers, ethnocentrism does carry a negative effect on the quality of foreign product.

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purchase intention literature review. At the same time, electronic purchase has the features of rapid dissemination and precise positioning, which makes intention electronic word-of-mouth spread and amplified continuously in the process of communication purchase re-dissemination, and which is known to more audiences.

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Request PDF on ResearchGate | A review of literature on consumers' online purchase intentions | Nowadays, the rapid development of the Internet and its effect on daily life has introduced a new. The study intention that the purchase intention of consumers was directly affected by the individual differences of the recommender, and trust played review mediating role literature the influence of the characteristics of the recommender and consumer review on consumer decision-making.

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A Study of Factors Affecting on Customers Purchase Intention Case Study: the Agencies of Bono Brand Tile in Tehran Dr. Vahidreza Mirabi Associate professor Department of Management Literature review and hypotheses Purchase intention is a kind of decision-making that. Consumers Perception, Purchase Intention and Actual Purchase Behavior of Organic Food Products. consumers’ purchase intention of organic food products vary according to their demographic variables? 2. Literature Review. Organic Food Products Consumption Trend and the Need to Examine – Consumers’ Perception, Behavioral Intention.