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❶Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto.

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

In-Text Citation and Notes
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Citing Sources in the Text of your Paper

When no author is given, cite a work by its title or a shortened form of the title: The most famous of the medieval morality plays concerns one man's struggle to give up his attachment to worldly things and prepare himself for death "Everyman". I f you are quoting a source that itself has been quoted, include "qtd.

Richard Harrington notes that sleep deprivation has been a persistent problem among overseas flight crews, and it often manifests itself in drowsiness and inattentiveness in the computerized cockpits of s, "where the crew spend most of their time in a darkened environment, lulled by the drone of jet engines, and reduced to little more activity than monitoring dials and screens" qtd.

In many of your literature classes, everyone in the class will be using a common edition. When that is the case, you may, if your professor recommends, cite just the page number on which a reference appears. For instance, if everyone is using the same edition of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , and there are no other of Conrad's works being read, you could cite just the page number when citing this novella If you are discussing two common editions of works by different authors, simply add the authors' last names: Conrad 86 and Forster When you are discussing two common editions by the same author, simply distinguish in abbreviation between the two works: Because novels, plays, and poems are printed in many editions, the Modern Language Association recommends that when you cite a classical work of literature one with numerous editions , you provide information in addition to page numbers so that readers using different editions from yours can locate the passage you are citing.

After the page number, add a semicolon and other appropriate information, using lowercase abbreviations such as pt. In some cases, your professor will ask you to omit the page reference and cite the act, scene, and line number.

Use either Arabic or Roman numerals, or a combination of both:. When citing poetry, cite the section number if appropriate and line number, or, for poems without numbered lines, by title:. In "Broadway," Walt Whitman wistfully remarks of its citizenry, "Could but thy flagstones, curbs, facades, tell their innumerable tales" line 7. Classic verse plays and poems: When you cite classical verse plays and poems, the MLA recommends that you omit all page numbers and divisions and lines.

Use periods to separate the various numbers. It is also common practice to use appropriate abbreviations to cite certain well-known works. Some instructors still prefer to use Roman numerals for documenting scenes in plays Hamlet IV.

If your instructor does not insist on this practice, use Arabic numerals Hamlet , 4. For further information on note format or other issues related to citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style , 16th ed. Documentation 2, also called the Author-Date style, requires the use of parenthetical references in the text of the essay as well as a list of References.

Parenthetical references should be placed at the end of the sentence, before the period, when a resource has been used. If the sentence is either long enough or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence is not obvious, the parenthetical reference may instead be inserted immediately after the use of information from the source.

Page numbers should be included whenever possible. The following examples illustrate parenthetical reference formats for works with more than one author.

When organizations or corporate authors are the author of a text, the name of the organization may be shortened to its most basic title. Abbreviations for the organization are not encouraged. In the Chicago style, daily newspapers are rarely included in a list of References. Instead, attribution may be given to information from a daily newspaper in a parenthetical reference. The Chicago style guide does not offer examples for creating parenthetical references when there is no given author.

Standard practice has been to include the title of the work in place of the author. The title should be formatted in the same manner as the formatting in the References list entry. Electronic sources commonly lack a date of publication, as do other sources. For further information on citing sources using the Chicago style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.

Page numbers should be included within parentheses after the year of publication. These are separated by a colon and no spaces. If multiple sources are cited for the same statement, the author and publication year should be distinguished from other texts with a colon.

Cited texts should be arranged by author name or by date; arrangement should be consistent throughout the paper. In the Turabian citation style, writers may use one of two forms in citing their resources: Writers using the Turabian style may use the Chicago formats for both endnotes as references and for parenthetical references.

Refer to Kate L. Including a list of Works Cited at the end of an essay is not enough. Learn how to cite the use of a source in the text of your paper. Review five different methods for including the words of another writer or information from a research resource into the text of your paper. Learn how to create an annotated bibliography for a class assignment or for your own use as a researcher and writer.

In-Text Citation and Notes. Citing Sources in the Text of your Paper Each time writers use an outside source, they must give credit to the original writer or creator of that source. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3.

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.

Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. Relativity's theoretical foundations can be traced to earlier work by Faraday and Maxwell Einstein Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R.

Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning 9. According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.

Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3. Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible , Ezek.

Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo , Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.

During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Organization and Structure Graduate Writing Workshops: Introductions Graduate Writing Workshops:

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Citing a source within your research paper is crucial, in that it strengthens the credibility of your writing and lets you avoid being accused of plagiarizing.

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When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E.g., (Jones, ), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

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Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke ). The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.

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Just as each style guide has rules for creating a citation in a bibliography at the end of a text, each guide also has certain rules for citing the use of sources within the text of the essay. The following are basic guidelines for citing sources in the text of your paper when using the MLA, APA, Chicago, ASA, or Turabian style guides. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. Genre and the Research Paper.