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❶It is as an essayist that Addison is remembered today. Founder of The Spectator.

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John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon were inspired by the play to write an epistolary exchange entitled, Cato's Letters , on individual rights, using the name "Cato. The action of the play involves the forces of Cato at Utica , awaiting the attack of Caesar immediately following his victory at Thapsus 46 BC.

Juba, prince of Numidia , one of Cato's warriors, loves Cato's daughter Marcia. Meanwhile, Sempronius, a senator, and Syphax, a general of the Numidians, are conspiring secretly against Cato, hoping to prevent the Numidian army from supporting him.

In the final act, Cato commits suicide, leaving his followers to make their peace with the approaching army of Caesar—an easier task after Cato's death, since he was Caesar's most implacable enemy. It is sung either to the tune known as "London Addison's " by John Sheeles, written c. The later part of Addison's life was not without its troubles. His political career continued, and he served as Secretary of State for the Southern Department from to His political newspaper, The Freeholder , was much criticized, and Alexander Pope , in An Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot , made him an object of derision, naming him "Atticus", and comparing him to an adder , "willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike.

Addison's shyness in public limited his effectiveness as a member of Parliament. He eventually fell out with Steele over the Peerage Bill of In , Addison was forced to resign as Secretary of State because of his poor health, but he remained an MP until his death at Holland House, London , on 17 June age Addison was buried in Westminster Abbey. After his death, an apocryphal story circulated that Addison, on his deathbed, had sent for his wastrel stepson to witness how a Christian man meets death.

It is as an essayist that Addison is remembered today. Addison began writing essays quite casually. Regarding Addison's help, Steele remarked, "when I had once called him in, I could not subsist without dependence on him". On 1 March , The Spectator was published, and it continued until 6 December The Spectator was issued daily and achieved great popularity. It exercised an influence over the reading public of the time. Addison soon became the leading partner in The Spectator. He contributed essays out a total of ; Steele wrote Addison also assisted Steele with the Guardian which began in The breezy, conversational style of the essays later prompted Bishop Richard Hurd to reprove Addison for what he called an "Addisonian Termination," or preposition stranding , a grammatical construction that ends a sentence with a preposition.

He also left an incomplete work, Of the Christian Religion. In , an Austrian banker and collector named Albin Schram died, and in his laundry room a collection of a thousand letters was found, some of them of interest to historians.

Two of them were written by Joseph Addison. The first reported on a debate in the House of Commons about a grant to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and his heirs, following the Battle of Ramillies.

The letter was written on the day of the debate, probably to George Stepney. Following the Duke of Marlborough's successful campaign of , the Duke and George Stepney became the first English regents of the Anglo-Dutch condominium for governing the southern Netherlands. It was Stepney who formally took possession of the principality of Mindelheim in the Duke's name on 26 May, after the Battle of Ramillies.

A second letter, written to Richard Steele was also found, concerning the Tatler and other matters. I wish you had reserved the Letter in this days paper concerning Indecencies at Church for an entire piece. It wd have made as good a one as any you have published.

Your Reflections upon Almanza are very good. Addison's character has been described as kind and magnanimous, albeit somewhat cool and unimpassioned, with a tendency for convivial excess. His appealing manners and conversation contributed to his general popularity.

He often put his friends under obligations for substantial favours, but he showed great forbearance toward his few enemies. His essays are noted for their clarity and elegant style, as well as their cheerful and respectful humour. But, after full inquiry and impartial reflection, we have long been convinced that he deserved as much love and esteem as can be justly claimed by any of our infirm and erring race.

Some blemishes may undoubtedly be detected in his character; but the more carefully it is examined, the more it will appear, to use the phrase of the old anatomists, sound in the noble parts, free from all taint of perfidy, of cowardice, of cruelty, of ingratitude, of envy. Men may easily be named, in whom some particular good disposition has been more conspicuous than in Addison.

But the just harmony of qualities, the exact temper between the stern and the humane virtues, the habitual observance of every law, not only of moral rectitude, but of moral grace and dignity, distinguish him from all men who have been tried by equally strong temptations, and about whose conduct we possess equally full information.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the 20th-century British ambassador, see Joseph Addison diplomat. For the British general, see Joseph Edward Addison. Joseph Addison, the " Kit-cat portrait ", circa —, by Godfrey Kneller. Dictionary of National Biography. Coverley Papers from The Spectator. However, he fell out with Addison and with the administration over the Peerage Bill , and in he retired to his wife's homeland of Wales , where he spent the remainder of his life.

Steele was a member of the Kit-Kat Club. Steele remained in Carmarthen after his wife Mary's death, and was buried there, at St Peter's Church. During restoration of the church in , his skull was discovered in a lead casket, having previously been accidentally disinterred during the s. Steele's first published work, The Christian Hero , attempted to point out the differences between perceived and actual masculinity.

Written while Steele served in the army, it expressed his idea of a pamphlet of moral instruction. The Christian Hero was ultimately ridiculed for what some thought was hypocrisy because Steele did not necessarily follow his own preaching.

He was criticized [ by whom? Steele wrote a comedy that same year titled The Funeral. This play met with wide success and was performed at Drury Lane, bringing him to the attention of the King and the Whig party. Next, Steele wrote The Lying Lover , one of the first sentimental comedies, but a failure on stage. The Tatler , Steele's first journal, first came out on 12 April , and appeared three times a week: Steele wrote this periodical under the pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff and gave Bickerstaff an entire, fully developed personality.

Steele described his motive in writing The Tatler as "to expose the false arts of life, to pull off the disguises of cunning, vanity, and affectation, and to recommend a general simplicity in our dress, our discourse, and our behavior".

While Addison contributed to The Tatler , it is widely regarded [ by whom? The Tatler was closed down to avoid the complications of running a Whig publication that had come under Tory attack. In , Steele married a widow, Margaret Stretch, who died in the following year.

At her funeral he met his second wife, Mary Scurlock , whom he nicknamed "Prue" and married in In the course of their courtship and marriage, he wrote over letters to her. Mary died in , at a time when she was considering separation. It is during his time with the Life Guards, where he is mostly referred to as Dick the Scholar and makes mention of his friend "Joe Addison".

Thackeray depicts Steele in glowing terms as a warm, generous, talented mentor who befriends the title character in his youth and remains loyal to him for years despite their political differences.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 18th-century author. For others, see Richard Steele disambiguation. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required.


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Addison and Steele essays During the early part of the

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Here Addison took the lead, contributing a larger number of essays than Steele and, most scholars agree, setting the tone for the new journal. The Spectator, which was published every day except Sunday, ran issues, until finally running out of steam.

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Addison and steele essays - Quick and trustworthy services from industry best agency. Best HQ academic services provided by top professionals. Quality and cheap paper to ease your studying. Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele were 18th century writers and they have employed journalism in many of their writings. (11, n. pag.) The most popular example is The Spectator which was one of the most popular pieces of literature written by them.