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What does a Rough Draft on a research paper look like?I just need the outline of a rough draft.

The Structure of a Research Paper

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Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources. The purpose of doing so is twofold:. You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography. For this assignment, you will use the citation format used by the American Psychological Association also known as APA style. In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper.

In-text citations must have corresponding sources listed in the references section. These include two vital pieces of information: When quoting a print source, also include in the citation the page number where the quoted material originally appears.

The page number will follow the year in the in-text citation. Page numbers are necessary only when content has been directly quoted, not when it has been summarized or paraphrased. Within a paragraph, this information may appear as part of your introduction to the material or as a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence. Read the examples that follow. Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels.

Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, The period at the end of the sentence comes after the parentheses. Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.

While in-text citations provide the most basic information about the source, your references section will include additional publication details. In general, you will include the following information:. Additional information may be included for different types of sources, such as online sources. As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points.

Recall that primary sources present firsthand information. Secondary sources are one step removed from primary sources. How you balance primary and secondary source material in your paper will depend on the topic and assignment. Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose. Here are a few examples:. For these types of papers, primary research is the main focus. And, of course, if you take the time to design and conduct your own field research, such as a survey, a series of interviews, or an experiment, you will want to discuss it in detail.

For example, the interviews may provide interesting responses that you want to share with your reader. For some assignments, it makes sense to rely more on secondary sources than primary sources. If you are not analyzing a text or conducting your own field research, you will need to use secondary sources extensively.

These sources are more reliable and add more value to your paper than sources that are further removed from primary research. For instance, a popular magazine article on junk-food addiction might be several steps removed from the original scientific study on which it is loosely based. Even if your paper is largely based on primary sources, you may use secondary sources to develop your ideas.

A paper that presents an original experiment would include some discussion of similar prior research in the field. Jorge knew he did not have the time, resources, or experience needed to conduct original experimental research for his paper.

Because he was relying on secondary sources to support his ideas, he made a point of citing sources that were not far removed from primary research. They provide firsthand examples of the media coverage the writer is analyzing. It is crucial to always distinguish between the two—as you conduct research, as you plan your paper, and as you write. Failure to do so can lead to plagiarism. Plagiarism may be deliberate or may occur unintentionally through careless use of source material.

Sometimes a writer plagiarizes work on purpose—for instance, by purchasing an essay from a website and submitting it as original course work. In other cases, a writer may commit accidental plagiarism due to carelessness, haste, or misunderstanding.

To avoid unintentional plagiarism, follow these guidelines:. Any idea or fact taken from an outside source must be cited, in both the body of your paper and the references list.

The only exceptions are facts or general statements that are common knowledge. Common-knowledge facts or general statements are commonly supported by and found in multiple sources. For example, a writer would not need to cite the statement that most breads, pastas, and cereals are high in carbohydrates; this is well known and well documented. However, if a writer explained in detail the differences among the chemical structures of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, a citation would be necessary.

When in doubt, cite. In recent years, issues related to the fair use of sources have been prevalent in popular culture. For academic purposes, however, the guidelines for fair use are reasonably straightforward. For instance, a columnist may excerpt a few sentences from a novel when writing a book review. As he worked on his draft, Jorge was careful to cite his sources correctly and not to rely excessively on any one source. Occasionally, however, he caught himself quoting a source at great length.

In those instances, he highlighted the paragraph in question so that he could go back to it later and revise. After reviewing the paragraph, Jorge realized that he had drifted into unoriginal writing. Most of the paragraph was taken verbatim from a single article. Although Jorge had enclosed the material in quotation marks, he knew it was not an appropriate way to use the research in his paper. Low-carbohydrate diets may indeed be superior to other diet plans for short-term weight loss.

Heinz concluded that these plans yield quick results, an idea supported by a similar study conducted by Johnson and Crowe What remains to be seen, however, is whether this initial success can be sustained for longer periods.

As Jorge revised the paragraph, he realized he did not need to quote these sources directly. Instead, he paraphrased their most important findings. He also made sure to include a topic sentence stating the main idea of the paragraph and a concluding sentence that transitioned to the next major topic in his essay. Disorganization and carelessness sometimes lead to plagiarism. A writer may cut and paste a passage from a website into her paper and later forget where the material came from.

A writer who procrastinates may rush through a draft, which easily leads to sloppy paraphrasing and inaccurate quotations. Any of these actions can create the appearance of plagiarism and lead to negative consequences. Carefully organizing your time and notes is the best guard against these forms of plagiarism. Maintain a detailed working bibliography and thorough notes throughout the research process.

Check original sources again to clear up any uncertainties. Allow plenty of time for writing your draft so there is no temptation to cut corners.

If you need to consult outside sources to research a document you are creating, follow the general guidelines already discussed, as well as any industry-specific citation guidelines. The concepts and strategies discussed in this section of Chapter 12 "Writing a Research Paper" connect to a larger issue—academic integrity. It is a point of honor taken seriously in every academic discipline and career field. Academic integrity violations have serious educational and professional consequences.

Students who are found guilty of academic integrity violations face consequences ranging from a failing grade to expulsion from the university. Employees may be fired for plagiarism and do irreparable damage to their professional reputation. In short, it is never worth the risk. Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you.

Help a Public School. Identify when and how to summarize, paraphrase, and directly quote information from research sources. Apply guidelines for citing sources within the body of the paper and the bibliography. Use primary and secondary research to support ideas. Identify the purposes for which writers use each type of research. The Structure of a Research Paper Research papers generally follow the same basic structure: Writing Your Introduction There are several approaches to writing an introduction, each of which fulfills the same goals.

Many writers like to begin with one of the following catchy openers: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets I. Introduction Over the past decade, increasing numbers of Americans have jumped on the low-carb bandwagon. Exercise 1 Write the introductory paragraph of your research paper. Tip Writers often work out of sequence when writing a research paper.

Writing Your Conclusion In your introduction, you tell readers where they are headed. Writing at Work If your job involves writing or reading scientific papers, it helps to understand how professional researchers use the structure described in this section.

Using Source Material in Your Paper One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Summary In three recent studies, researchers compared outcomes for obese subjects who followed either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat diet, or a Mediterranean diet and found that subjects following a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight in the same time Howell, Tip A summary restates ideas in your own words—but for specialized or clinical terms, you may need to use terms that appear in the original source.

Exercise 2 On a separate sheet of paper, practice summarizing by writing a one-sentence summary of the same passage that Jorge already summarized. Source Dieters nearly always get great results soon after they begin following a low-carbohydrate diet, but these results tend to taper off after the first few months, particularly because many dieters find it difficult to follow a low-carbohydrate diet plan consistently.

Summary People usually see encouraging outcomes shortly after they go on a low-carbohydrate diet, but their progress slows down after a short while, especially because most discover that it is a challenge to adhere to the diet strictly Heinz, Summary Because it is hard for dieters to stick to a low-carbohydrate eating plan, the initial success of these diets is short-lived Heinz, Exercise 3 On a separate sheet of paper, follow these steps to practice paraphrasing.

Choose an important idea or detail from your notes. Without looking at the original source, restate the idea in your own words. Check your paraphrase against the original text in the source. Make sure both your language and your sentence structure are original. Revise your paraphrase if necessary. Quoting Sources Directly Most of the time, you will summarize or paraphrase source material instead of quoting directly.

When you do choose to quote directly from a source, follow these guidelines: Make sure you have transcribed the original statement accurately. Never use a stand-alone quotation. Always integrate the quoted material into your own sentence. Use ellipses … if you need to omit a word or phrase. Use brackets [ ] if you need to replace a word or phrase. Make sure any omissions or changed words do not alter the meaning of the original text.

Omit or replace words only when absolutely necessary to shorten the text or to make it grammatically correct within your sentence. Remember to include correctly formatted citations that follow the assigned style guide. Documenting Source Material Throughout the writing process, be scrupulous about documenting information taken from sources. The purpose of doing so is twofold: To give credit to other writers or researchers for their ideas To allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired You will cite sources within the body of your paper and at the end of the paper in your bibliography.

Citing Sources in the Body of Your Paper In-text citations Instances in which use of source material is documented in the body text of the research paper. Summary Leibowitz found that low-carbohydrate diets often helped subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels. Summary Low-carbohydrate diets often help subjects with Type II diabetes maintain a healthy weight and control blood-sugar levels Leibowitz, Creating a List of References Each of the sources you cite in the body text will appear in a references list A list of sources used in a research paper that provides detailed bibliographical information.

In general, you will include the following information: Using Primary and Secondary Research As you write your draft, be mindful of how you are using primary and secondary source material to support your points. Using Primary Sources Effectively Some types of research papers must use primary sources extensively to achieve their purpose. Research Paper Rough Draft — Learn it the easy way When you have decided to carry out research in a particular subject, it is necessary for you to pay attention to the documentation of this research.

Take a look at these steps; they could help you with research paper rough drafts Write out the thesis statement that you have formulated after a lot of consideration and brainstorming. If you are not sure about forming this statement, you could ask us for help. When you write your statement down, it helps to focus on it, right through the writing process.

Keep writing down points as and when you think of them. However, it would help if you could make a few subheadings first. This would help you jot down points in a very systematic manner.

This in turn would help you write your paper better. Also remember that at this stage of the writing process, it is not necessary to write complete sentences. This is more of a note-making exercise. When you have an outline in place, write your research paper rough draft in keeping with the points that you have. If your outline specifies that the first paragraph should relate to the history or background of the topic, then write a few sentences on it.

Of course, you could always think of rephrasing the sentences in subsequent drafts. You could continue this process for each of the points that are placed in your outline.

Also make sure that you have the right number of examples and case studies to support the points that you are explaining on.

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At last, you are ready to begin writing the rough draft of your research paper. Putting your thinking and research into words is exciting. It can also be challenging.

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The rough draft is the best time to double check that your paper and the arguments, points, or clarifications made within it all follow sensible logic. Ideas must be given breathing room and allowed to develop naturally as the essay goes on.

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