By the turn of B. The state lasted for up to three hundred years in spite of considerable interruptions. During the monarchical rule, pharaoh was the ultimate authority. The aspects that strike most about the Egyptian civilization border on government stability and religious rituals. In my view, Egypt's adoption of a centralized approach was a critical choice.
At such an early age, it baffles observers that it was possible to organize large groups of people under one government. Moreover, the Egyptian civilization caught my attention concerning death, funeral monuments, and the use of mummification for preservation purposes.
The death rituals of the Egyptian people implied that death was not the end of life. Alternatively, the treatment of the deceased implied that they occupied a special place. There was also a strong link between the political structures and funeral arrangements. The leaning towards art is perhaps a significant difference between the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. The Egyptian civilization developed the hieroglyphic alphabet which they used extensively Benton and DiYanni The hieroglyphic alphabet was based on pictorial abstraction.
Object pictures were used to represent given sounds or concepts. In Mesopotamia, writing was also used. However, in Mesopotamia, writing was more complex and was monopolized by the priestly group.
Egyptians were able to develop a writing material, the papyrus. This development contributed to the enhancement of record keeping substantially. Benton and DiYanni observed that the Egyptian civilization was based along the river Nile.
On the other hand, the Mesopotamian civilization was situated between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The aspect of rivers is common although the Mesopotamian civilization was between the rivers while the Egyptian civilization was along the river Nile. In addition, the issue of religion is similar among the citizens of both Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Around BCE, oxen had taken over the heavy workload. The majorities of noblemen were inevitably involved in the agricultural system because they possessed farms and administered royal or temple agricultural land. Most importantly, there was family; family was important to Egyptians because life was short and difficult.
In fact, newborn children were not expected to survive their first year. The infant mortality rate and the rate of women during or after childbirth was around sixty to seventy percent. It was seen as special blessing from the gods if they survived their first year. At about five years of age boys and girls were separated in their "learning experiences", in other words, they began to take on gender roles.
If the boy came from a wealthy family then he had the advantage of being taught in school; if the boy was poor then he had to help tithe the men's jobs in the fields or whatever occupation his father held. They boys' education lasted between the ages of twelve and sixteen; this is about the time the adolescent male was considered grown and could begin work for himself.
This was also the earliest age for men to marry but they normally would not seek a wife until they reached the ages of seventeen through twenty. A man could have more than one wife, but he had to be able to support each of then and their children. Consequently, only the wealthy members of the community usually did this. Most men continued to work until their death; unfortunately the average life span was approximately thirty years of age for the underclass.
Men who made it past the age of forty received a special blessing and were greatly rewarded. Each year the men were contracted a stipend, or take-home-pay, from the government that consisted of vegetables and grain. The ration was smaller than what he would have earned than if he had continued to work, but it was enough to keep him alive.
There were no formal schools for girls; therefore the mothers educated their daughters at home. At the age of four, girls began to learn how to maintain the house, how to sew, make foods, and spend hours at a time doing domestic chores with their mother.
The hours that the female spent doing domestic chores were far longer than that of the educational hours of the boys. The females had to also learn to make cloth and sew it into clothing and tend the fields and crops along with other countless chores.
Women did attend professional schools, such at Heliopolis, a school for medicine and Sais, where they learned to become doctors. Egyptian women did seek employment outside of their homes and many of them worked as dancers or musicians in temples and during festivals. If the woman belonged to a wealthy family, she would hire a nanny or a professional mourner for funerals. Other women spent their time and resources on operating a small business out of their home; these businesses would include things such as perfume or linen manufacturing.
Such businesses increased the household income because such things were in great demand for funeral rights. Those that attended the medical schools sought employment as a midwife, gynecologist, or physician. Those that took up dancing and music became the director of a dancing or singing troupe. Most women chose the occupation of being a gynecologist and their skills included cesarean sections, more commonly called a C-Section today, and the surgical removal of a cancerous breast. As soon as a girl began menstruating around the age of twelve or thirteen, she was expected to marry; they were also expected to have a child within the first year of marriage.
Marriage was a secular activity and was regulated by custom instead of law. Instead of a marriage contract, men and women drew up property agreements at the time of marriage in the event that there would be a divorce or a death. Women would then travel to the home of their new husband. Pregnancy was a widely celebrated occasion among ancient Egyptians; even if the girl was not married, her pregnancy was celebrated.
Women did, and needed to, have the same legal rights und the law as men who were away from home for much of the time due to recurrent projects or warfare. Many responsibilities, legal rights, and status were divided among class lines rather than gender lines.
In certain classes women were allowed to enter and execute contracts, file lawsuits, and free to buy and sell property. She could also gain possessions, property, and debt separate from her husband through either inheritance or labor. A woman was entitled to one third of their joint property on the death of her husband and the remainder of the property would be divided among their surviving children and siblings of the deceased man.
Under Egyptian law, women were equally accountable for their actions and misdoings as the men were. A woman who was convicted of a capital crime in a court of law, was sentenced to death, but only after the court determined whether or not the woman was pregnant.
If she was, then her execution was stayed until she gave birth to the child, then she was executed. When a female retired she was taken care of by her sons, if she had no sons she would be taken care of by her daughter and son-in-law. This was very rare and only happened if the daughter married into a wealthy family; other than that, the mother would be forced into living as a beggar.
Just as society was divided into classes, so were the house; there were two types of homes: Houses were built out of bricks made of mud, straw, and stone. The mud was collected in a leather bucket and taken to a building site. This is were the straw and stone were added to the mud to reinforce or strengthen the bricks.
They, the bricks, were then poured into frames or molds and left in the sun to dry and cure. These dwellings were not very stable and would often crumble or deteriorate after a certain amount of time; when this happened a new home was built on tope of the crumbled material, called tells or hills.
If the building was meant to last forever it was built out of stone, other than that the houses were made of mud and covered in plaster. This technique was similar to that of the adobe used in the American Southwest. The workers' homes were usually four meters by twenty meters.
The interior of the house was usually painted with geometric patterns or scenes of nature; windows were often placed close to the ceiling to keep the inside of the house cool. Unfortunately, with such high windows, very little light was let into the home. The workers' home ranged from two to four rooms on the ground level, and enclosed yard, a kitchen at the back of the house, and two underground cellars that were used for storage purposes.
Niches, or slots, in the walls were often used to hold religious items; the roof was also considered to be a living and storage space. There was very little furniture. The most furniture a worker would earn would consist of a bed, a chest for clothing, and a table that stood on three or four legs. Most of the villagers spent their time out doors and often slept, cooked, and ate on the top of their houses; this was possible because the roofs of the houses were flat.
Upon entering a person's home there were steps that led to an entrance hall with a cupboard bed there is no known use for this object ; the next room contained a pillar in the middle of the room. This pillar was used to support the roof. This was the main room, or entertainment room, that was used for receptions or as a shrine.
The master of the house had his own chair, called a dais, that atop a raised platform. There were several stools and one or two tables that were designated for guests; there was also a false door within the room that was accompanied holy images along the walls, and a table with offerings. Stones were often used in the first floor for more strength at the base. The first level of the house was more commonly used as a working area to conduct business and where the servants remained.
The second and third levels of the house were used as living quarters. The food would be prepared on the roof and brought down to the rooms by servants because it was considered dangerous to cook in an enclosed area. Mats were also kept on the floor to keep it cool. Only the rich could afford a toilette; the toilettes would be carved out of limestone and proper sanitation was considered a luxury.
Sewage was disposed of into pits that were located in the streets. Among a toilettes, the wealthy also owned a stool that was curved upwards in the corners; when sat upon a leather cushion was provided for support of the back. This was the most typical piece of furniture that a wealthy family owned. Small tables and chairs were frequently made of wicker or wood and had three to four legs. Beds were made of a woven mat and placed on a wooden frame standing on animal-shaped legs. At one end of the bed was a footboard and at the opposite end was a headrest that had a curved neckpiece that sat on top of a short pillar on an oblong or quadrilateral base.
As one can imagine, the elite of ancient Egyptian society lived quite comfortably compared to the low-income families that they often employed. Who was there to run Egypt? The ancient Egyptians had a government ruler called the Pharaoh, who today would be considered a king. He was believed to have received his authority from the gods.
He was both political and religious leader; His job was to help keep balance to what the Egyptians referred to as Maat; according the people of Egypt, Maat would be in tact as long as the Pharaoh and the people kept their religious ceremonies and obey the laws that were set for them. As political ruler, the Pharaoh he had to do things such command the army and settle legal disputes. Egypt was regarded as a polytheistic society; this was true until the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten. This Pharaoh imposed a monotheistic religion on the people of Egypt; he tried to make them worship the god Amen.
Beside every Pharaoh was his beloved wife. In fact they are often regarded as the most important characters in ancient Egyptian. Some of these women were destined to take throne and rule as Pharaoh or they were very highly respected among the people. The Pharaoh would marry someone of his blood to keep the linage pure.
After the agents were done recruiting, the young men were sent before a governor who set selected a set number of qualified looking men; the rest were sent back home. This is the way Egyptians built their infantry. Later on the Hyksos introduced chariots, during their occupation of Egypt.
Nov 20, · Essay on Egyptian Civilization. Periods of Egyptian civilization. The Egyptian civilization is not only viewed as one of the oldest civilizations, but also as one of the most durable ones/5(10).
The ancient Egyptian civilization was one of the oldest cultures that existed. From the many archeological finds, and from the great monument left behind by ancient Egyptians, we have learnt many facts including their food, gods, their rulers, tradition/ceremonial ways, writing system, sports and their general way of life.
The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Essay; The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Essay. Words 4 Pages. There are many civilizations in history that contributed to the rise of modern day society. All of the things that we see today have been in some way shape or form improved upon to stand the test of time. The ancient Egyptian civilization is. Egyptian Civilization essays Egyptian civilization formed along the Nile river and the earliest traces of human life in that region are from the Paleolithic Age, (Old Stone Age), about , B.C., at the very edges of the Nile Valley. Beyond, on both sides of the river the land was and still is.
Below given is an essay sample on maintenance and power of Ancient Egyptian civilization. If you are writing a historical paper, it may come in handy. The African Origin of Ancient Egyptian Civilization Essay - Few bygone civilizations fascinate us as much as that of the ancient Egyptians. The kingdom along the Nile River has been the subject of countless books, magazine articles, movies, and television shows and documentaries.