Prior to the s, scientists largely believed that the shifts in climate between ice ages and warmer periods occurred over centuries and millennia due to the large amount of time. Geologic evidence from the last decades, however, shows that there have also been rather abrupt periods of climate change spanning anywhere from years to decades.
Abrupt climate changes can occur when variable that change gradually push the Earth's system across some limit of instability. One of the known examples of this rapid change is the Younger Drays, which was a sudden interruption gradual global warming that began 12, years ago after the end of the last glaciations. Climate' variation occurs as a response to "climate forcing," which are factors that cause either a warming or cooling of the atmosphere.
Over most of the Earth's history forcing have been entirely natural, caused by continental drift, variability in solar radiation, chain in the Earth's orbit, and volcanic emissions. However, since the industrial revolution, human activity has had a large impact on the global climate system, increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, trapping heat and contributing to global warming.
While this may seem like a small change, global temperatures are generally quite stable. The difference between today global temperature and the average global temperature of the last ice age is only about 5t. However, over the last century we have witnessed a decrease of nearly 10 percentage snow cover and a percentage decrease in spring and summer sea-ice in the northern hemisphere] Other observed changes that have been linked to climate include longer growing seasons, increases in rainfall and rainfall intensity in the northern hemisphere, and shifts in when ice freezes and breaks up on rivers and lakes.
The IPCC has projected that global average surface temperatures could increase 1. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures will increase as well as the number of hot days-, with less cold and frosty days.
The global average precipitation and evaporation is also expected to increase by about one to nine percent. The precipitation changes are expected to vary from region to region, with increases over the northern mid to high latitudes and in Antarctica during the winter. The intensity of extreme weather events is also likely to increase, with greater extremes of both flooding and drought.
Despite all of the information and evidence that scientists have uncovered related to changes in climate, there continues to be uncertainty around the causes of climate change and its potential impacts.
These uncertainties stem primarily from the science itself as well as from the future of human behaviour, especially as it relates to the amount of natural climatic variability and future greenhouse gas emissions. Many of these factors will depend on human behaviour, which may be influenced by effects on health and the quality of life, technological advances, and policy changes.
Therefore, when dealing with climate change, scientists need to make a number of assumptions with an ever increasing number of models that focus on different parts of the climate system; all of which makes pinpointing exactly what to expect in terms of future climate change that much more difficult. However, climate involves the entire climatic systems including hydrosphere, lithosphere, [biosphere, and atmosphere and cry sphere.
It affects geomorphologic process, soil formation process, plant growth and development. In exchange, man also exerts influence on climate through various activities and is consistently changing the atmospheric conditions.
It goes without saying that man is the worst enemy and polluter of environment. Though, natural environment is essential for the very existence of man and is the primary source of his life and social production. From consumption to production, the use of water is so essential that without it, the continuation of human life on this planet would be impossible. It is quite worrisome, therefore, to examine the diminishing quantity of usable water for humanity is currently facing.
According to Lester R Brown, what we are now experiencing can be seen as analogous to being on an edge, and we seriously face falling off. As he notes, the global population increases by 80 million people annually, and this could be disastrous to the supply and distribution of water. Those in poorer nations are often looked at with sympathy for their lack of the basic necessities of life , but in the end of the day, little is done to improve their situations.
Take the declaration for declaring water as a basic human right. Under this proposal, water would be declared as a basic human right and the UN would set forth procedures and guidelines to help provide it to those countries where scarcity of water is a pending issue PLoS Medicine, This resolution was voted down, exploiting one of the largest hindrances to acts to effect and deal with issues such as climate change: These companies did not want to see the declaration passed and have done all they could to see it fail.
This is not an uncommon when it comes to getting money at the cost of global health and safety. Nations around the world have taken their own means to secure the longevity of their homeland, even if it at the expense of others. A perfect example of this is the glacial water supply issue that currently faces eastern and central Asia. As global temperatures rise more and more yearly, the size of the glaciers of the area continue to diminish. For many nations that depend on the glaciers as a source of fresh water, the decrease in their size is quite alarming.
For these nations like Indonesia , the next available source of water is through rivers that run through their land, however the flow of said rivers can be altered by other nations. China controls the sources of many of the rivers of the region and they have been damming up those rivers to keep the majority of the water in their nation. One major concern for these actions is with the relations between China and India. What the world needs now is not conflict and strife between nations but a solution to this issue.
The world must come together to try to address and solve some of the pressing issues of climate change. This can start with developed nations taking initiative, considering that they are historically the most responsible for this issue. Some of these suggestions include: Though some of the other solutions offered by this agreement are a bit extreme, the message remains clear: What the world needs to do is to truly empower a multinational governmental body to combat these changes facing the planet.
The UN, though excellent theoretically, is essentially toothless in inflicting punishments against nations that go against its mandates. An order must be established that not only can lay down actions that must be undertaken by nations, but this agency must have the ability to give meaningful punishment to those that go against its mandates and recommendations.
Our actions against global climate change to this point have been ineffective. The developed, wealthy nations of the world have not had to suffer the consequences of climate change the same way that poorer nations have had to, however this may change with the way the world has been heading.
If our actions go unchecked, the world will enter an era where wars may no longer be fought for land and oil but are fought for basic resources such as water. To address and combat these issues, a new, multinational agency must be formed in order to fairly address these issues.
As efforts like the Paris climate talks have been productive, it's clearly not enough. The body will have the ability to force the world to adapt climate change legislature that will no longer be ignored. The options of the world are growing thinner. Should the US heartland see an increase in temperatures as Moscow did in its recent summer, the world could see a million ton loss in grain production Brown, This issue is on the magnitude that affects the entire planet and population.
As our nonrenewable resources are depleted, the world grows closer and closer to facing a crisis of the likes never seen before by humanity. We truly now stand on an edge; if actions are not taken to step away from this edge, the future of humanity itself will be in serious question.
World on the edge: How to prevent environmental and economic collapse. World people's conference on climate change and the rights of mother earth.
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