The researcher develops the plan for the walking program, indicating what data will be collected, when and how the data will be collected, who will collect the data, and how the data will be analyzed. The instrumentation plan specifies all the steps that must be completed for the study. This ensures that the programmer has carefully thought through all these decisions and that she provides a step-by-step plan to be followed in the study. Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data.
The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. Data can be collected in the form of words on a survey, with a questionnaire, through observations, or from the literature. In the obesity study, the programmers will be collecting data on the defined variables: The researcher collects these data at the first session and at the last session of the program.
These two sets of data are necessary to determine the effect of the walking program on weight, body fat, and cholesterol level. Once the data are collected on the variables, the researcher is ready to move to the final step of the process, which is the data analysis. All the time, effort, and resources dedicated to steps 1 through 7 of the research process culminate in this final step. The researcher finally has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan, the researcher specified how the data will be analyzed.
The researcher now analyzes the data according to the plan. The results of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a manner directly related to the research questions. In the obesity study, the researcher compares the measurements of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol that were taken at the first meeting of the subjects to the measurements of the same variables at the final program session.
These two sets of data will be analyzed to determine if there was a difference between the first measurement and the second measurement for each individual in the program. Then, the data will be analyzed to determine if the differences are statistically significant. If the differences are statistically significant, the study validates the theory that was the focus of the study.
The results of the study also provide valuable information about one strategy to combat childhood obesity in the community. As you have probably concluded, conducting studies using the eight steps of the scientific research process requires you to dedicate time and effort to the planning process. You cannot conduct a study using the scientific research process when time is limited or the study is done at the last minute.
Social Studies in Sport and Physical Activity. Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation. Identify the Problem The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. This Item is currently out of stock. Health Care in Exercise and Sport. Health Care for Special Conditions. Physical Activity and Health. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise.
Research Methods, Measurement, and Evaluation. Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Sport Management and Sport Business.
Strength Training and Conditioning. Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology. International Journal of Golf Science. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. Journal of Motor Learning and Development. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal.
Sociology of Sport Journal. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. Physical Education and Coaching. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. International Sport Coaching Journal. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Sport Business and Sport Management. Case Studies in Sport Management.
International Journal of Sport Communication. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport. Journal of Sport Management. Sport Management Education Journal.
Thus, working hypotheses arise as a result of a-priori thinking about the subject, examination of the available data and material including related studies and the counsel of experts and interested parties.
Working hypotheses are more useful when stated in precise and clearly defined terms. It may as well be remembered that occasionally we may encounter a problem where we do not need working hypotheses, specially in the case of exploratory or formularies researches which do not aim at testing the hypothesis. But as a general rule, specification of working hypotheses in another basic step of the research process in most research problems. In other words, the function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
But how all these can be achieved depends mainly on the research purpose. Research purposes may be grouped into four categories, vi. A flexible research design which provides opportunity for considering many different aspects of a problem is considered appropriate if the purpose of the research study is that of exploration. But when the purpose happens to be an accurate description sofa situation or of an association between variables, the suitable design will be one that minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyses.
There are several research designs, such as, experimental and non-experimental hypothesis testing. Experimental designs can be either informal designs such as before-and-after without control,after-only with control, before-and-after with control or formal designs such as completely randomized design, randomized block design, Latin square design, simple and complex factorial designs , out of which the researcher must select one for his own project.
The preparation of the research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves usually the consideration of the following:. Even the slightest element of bias in such an inquiry will get larger and larger as the number of observations increases. Moreover, there is no way of checking the element of bias or its extent except through are survey or use of sample checks. Besides, this type of inquiry involves a great deal of time, money and energy. Not only this, census inquiry is not possible in practice under many circumstances.
For instance, blood testing is done only on sample basis. Hence, quite often we select only a few items from the universe for our study purposes. The items so selected constitute what is technically called sample. The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample or what is popularly known as the sample design. In other words, a sample design is a definite plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population.
Samples can be either probability samples or non-probability samples. With probability samples each element has a known probability of being included in the sample but the non-probability samples do not allow the researcher to determine this probability. A brief mention of the important sample designs is as follows:. In practice, several of the methods of sampling described above may well be used in the same study in which case it can be called mixed sampling.
It may be pointed out here that normally one should resort to random sampling so that bias can be eliminated and sampling error can be estimated. But purposive sampling is considered desirable when the universe happens to be small and a known characteristic of it is to be studied intensively.
Also, there are conditions under which sample designs other than random sampling may be considered better for reasons like convenience and low costs. The sample design to be used must be decided by the researcher taking into consideration the nature of the inquiry and other related factors.
Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he examines the truth contained in his hypothesis.
But in the case of a survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways:. The researcher should select one of these methods of collecting the data taking into consideration the nature of investigation, objective and scope of the inquiry, financial resources,available time and the desired degree of accuracy. Though he should pay attention to all these factors but much depends upon the ability and experience of the researcher.
In this context Dr ALGOL very aptly remarks that in collection of statistical data commonsense is the chief requisite and experience the chief teacher. The training may be given with the help of instruction manuals which explain clearly the job of the interviewers at each step. Occasional field checks should be made to ensure that the interviewers are doing their assigned job sincerely and efficiently.
A careful watch should be kept for unanticipated factors in order to keep the survey as much realistic as possible. This, in other words, means that steps should be taken to ensure that the survey is under statistical control so that the collected information is in accordance with the pre-defined standard of accuracy.
If some of the respondents do not cooperate, some suitable methods should be designed to tackle this problem. One method of dealing with the non-response problem is to make ali st of the non-respondents and take a small sub-sample of them, and then with the help of experts vigorous efforts can be made for securing response. Editing is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding. With coding the stage is ready for tabulation.
Tabulation is a part of the technical procedure wherein the classified data are put in the form of tables. The mechanical devices can be made use of at this juncture.
A great deal of data, specially in large inquiries, is tabulated by computers. Computers not only save time but also make it possible to study large number of variables affecting a problem simultaneously. Analysis work after tabulation is generally based on the computation of various percentages,coefficients, etc. In the process of analysis,relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with original or new hypotheses should be subjected to tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any conclusion s.
For instance, if there are two samples of weekly wages, each sample being drawn from factories indifferent parts of the same city, giving two different mean values, then our problem may be whether the two mean values are significantly different or the difference is just a matter of chance. Through the use of statistical tests we can establish whether such a difference is a real one or is the result of random fluctuations. If the difference happens to be real, the inference will be that the two samples Research come from different universes and if the difference is due to chance, the conclusion would be that the two samples belong to the same universe.
Similarly, the technique of analysis of variance can help us in analyzing whether three or more varieties of seeds grown on certain fields yield significantly different results or not. In brief, the researcher can analyses the collected data with the help of various statistical measures. In its preliminary pages the report should carry title and date followed by acknowledgement sand foreword.
Then there should be a table of contents followed by a list of tables and list of graphs and charts, if any, given in the report. At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data.
Index should also be given specially in a published research report. Measurement And Scaling Techniques. Analysis Of Variance And Co-variance. Interpretation And Report Writing.
Researchers organize their research by formulating and defining a research problem. This helps them focus the research process so that they can draw conclusions reflecting the real world in the best possible way. Hypothesis. In research, a hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon.
Research Process in Research Methodology Before embarking on the details of research methodology and techniques, it seems appropriate to present a brief overview of the research process. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps.
Research Methodology – Introduction Research Definition – Research is a careful investigation or inquiry specifically through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. It is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase the understanding of a topic or issue. Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is not necessary that every theory, technique and information in the topic of research is useful for a particular problem.
The differences between research method and research methodology can be drawn clearly on the following grounds: The research method is defined as the procedure or technique applied by the researcher to undertake research. On the other hand, research methodology is a system of methods, used scientifically for solving the research problem. CHAPTER 4 Research Methodology and Design Introduction All research is based on some underlying philosophical assumptions about what constitutes 'valid' research and which research method(s) is/are appropriate for the.