It is no coincidence that the statistical techniques of demography became more sophisticated around the same time as the term "sociology" was first coined by Auguste Comte. The two fields are complementary to one another, just as social change and population change go hand in hand.
For example, the potential of war to dramatically affect population numbers cannot be overstated. If natural conditions produce widespread starvation, social conditions that spur conflict and war can arise. A more recent and even better-known theory of population growth is known as demographic transition theory, which holds that populations move through four distinct stages of growth and decline processes, linked to the technological or developmental state of a given society.
In Table 1, the first stage is representative of most of human history up until the last few centuries. According to demographic transition theory, stages 2 and 3 are periods of expected increases in overall population as societies undergo processes of industrialization and the accompanying changes in food supply, sanitation, medicine, and working conditions.
In stage 3, decreasing birth rates and increasing life expectancy begin a period of population decline. In stage 4, the birth rate can either stabilize or decrease. If birth rates are stable, the population again reaches replacement rate.
Replacement Growth Declining Replacement. Demographic transition is descriptive of population growth during the era of widespread industrialization. Certainly, global population growth and decline have been geographically uneven, and patterns do differ between more and less industrialized nations, as demonstrated in Figure 3.
Demographic transition theory will be put to the test as India and China, with the world's largest populations, continue to industrialize and we see the outcomes of other recent trends in population processes over the next 40 years. Fertility rates in industrialized nations have been declining since the early twentieth century. In many less industrialized countries, the idea of planning and timing children was quite revolutionary.
Traditionally, with high rates of infant mortality, larger families held better chances of survival, gaining more status and wealth over time. During the latter part of the twentieth century, attitudes toward childbearing began to change. The global fertility rates began to decline after , as women in less industrialized countries began to limit the number of their children.
Many factors contributed to the changes in fertility patterns in the less industrialized world. Growing acceptance of the idea of family planning opened the door to multiple changes in childbearing behavior.
In the s and s, surveys to measure knowledge and use of family planning were first conducted in a small number of countries around the world. These surveys found that less than 10 percent of women were using any family planning method.
Family planning programs worldwide began to introduce women to more effective pregnancy prevention methods, including female sterilization, intrauterine devices IUDs , and oral contraceptives. Condom usage, which protects from sexually transmitted diseases STDs as well as pregnancy, ranks in popularity below these others in every country; only around 5 percent of women worldwide rely on condoms.
By the s, most women were using at least one effective method of contraception, and by , more than half of the world's women of reproductive age were using some method of birth control. In less industrialized nations, the total fertility rate fell from about 6. A large body of research over the last several years links higher education for women and girls with reduction in fertility levels.
Indeed, recent data from many countries show that women with at least a secondary-level education eventually give birth to onethird to one-half fewer children than do women with no formal education whatsoever. Educated women tend to delay marriage and opt for more control over their reproductive lives Haub, Across countries and time periods, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio generally varies little between human populations.
This started in the post-war period, when the parents of baby boomers initiated a mass movement to urban and suburb areas, enabling their children, who grew up in the 60s and 70s to create the demand for commodities such as high-rise apartments or running shoes.
This also modified the spatial expression of social structure by increasing demand for educational and health care facilities. The analysis indicates that Canada as a country has been experiencing a steady population growth, although it is relying heavily on immigration as its source of population growth. Considering the different lifestyle aspects of a newborn versus an immigrant, who could be of any age, this makes the spatial structure and distribution of this country especially interesting.
It is often the choice of the immigrant where he or she would prefer to live. Whereas large natural increases would even out population distribution, in Canada it is safe to assume that if the trends remain similar in the future the uneven nature will be even more accented. The trends show that although many of the provinces experience some type of growth, it is the economic centers such as Ontario and Quebec that are experience a majority of the growth.
This can be confidently ascribed to the greater availability due to demand of health care services, housing, transportation, and all types of commodities. After this analysis, it is clear that this is not the case.
Since Canada is so large, it has become one of the most expansive countries in the world. These expansions have required the greater use of vehicles to commute to different places. As a result, in provinces such as Ontario, congestion obstructs movement of freight, which is especially damaging to the province that produces the most shipments, and increases air pollution.
Coupled with current increase in immigrant population, and perhaps overpopulation in these provinces, over-consumption becomes an issue Houiellebecq, Nevertheless, the enforcement of days such as World Health Day and Blackout Day Houiellebecq, , along with the continued development of cities such as Calgary and provinces such as Alberta boasts as a good indicator that Canadian officials are aware of these phenomena and are taking measures.
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Population growth can have a number of negative effects such as environmental problems, with population growth contributing to almost % of the world’s environmental problems (Wenner, ). Population growth also has effects such as reduction of the world’s resources, and overpopulation of certain areas.
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