And this is what he learned when discovered that he can beat his wife up and suffer little or nothing at all for it Saadawi, p. The causes of battering women are very complicated indeed. Men beat their wives up for many different reasons. In many eastern countries, men beat their wives because this is what society expects of the man to do in order to protect his role as the man and the leader. In these male-dominated societies, both children and women are beaten and treated in the same way because they are not seen as mature human beings.
They are not allowed to express themselves, and they are not expected to do that. If they make mistakes, they are beaten so they do not repeat this mistake. Still, some men beat their wives because they are violent people. They cannot control their temper or behavior, and therefore, they lose self-control and express themselves through violence.
These men continue to beat their wives up because they do not get punished for it. The wife does not defend herself by complaining to the authorities, or she simply gets used to it. This submission reinforces the violence of the husband and makes him repeat the violence more easily in the future, thus turning the life of the wife into a living hell Moris, p.
Some psychologists have argued that many men beat their wives up because of an inferiority complex. They argue that a man who feels that his wife is more intelligent than he is will try to protect his image and position by inflicting physical pain onto her to bring her under control.
Accordingly, a man whose wife is more educated than him will have more motive to beat his wife than a man whose wife has less education than he does. Those psychologists and sociologists who argue for this theory have tried to depend on statistics from different societies to prove their points of view.
However, the evidences supporting this theory are still weak, and besides, the battery of women has existed long before women were ever allowed to get any education or work Moris, p. Domestic violence has been known to have serious consequences on the health and wellbeing of women. These consequences may be divided into physical and psychological categories.
These crimes take place as part of domestic violence towards women. In addition to the possibility of death, many women tend to suffer permanent disabilities or injuries resulting from battery Moris, p. In countries such as the US and Europe, medical authorities are forced to report to the police any incidents in which the woman suffers a serious injury.
In less serious cases, the woman is encouraged to report the injury to the policy, even if it is her husband who has inflicted such injuries upon her.
In other countries where the beating of women is part of traditions, authorities will try not to intervene to protect the woman even if she is seriously injured. The result is that the woman might suffer serious injuries and the doer gets away with his crime only because he is the husband Moris, p.
In many cases, battery does not result in any real physical injuries to the woman. But at the same time, the emotional and psychological consequences may even be much worse than the physical injuries. How do we expect an adult to react to a slap on the face, a punch on the ear, or pulling of the hair, or kicking? Violence aims at degrading the victims. It aims at reminding the victim that she is weak and unworthy. Indeed, battered women tend to suffer lower levels of self-esteem.
They are degraded by the beating and eventually, they start to perceive themselves as less worthy and valuable than other people are. In fact, many women eventually become convinced that they deserve the beating and humiliation to which they are subjected by their husbands Lowell, p. Another serious consequence of battery on women is that it makes their productivity decline.
With low self-esteem, battered women are afraid of competition. Studies in the workplace in the United States show that battered women are less capable of accomplishing their tasks on time and at the same quality level when compared to other women. For this reason, many big companies have established special counseling services that offer psychological help to battered women so that they can resolve their domestic problems Lowell, p.
When a woman gets beaten by her husband in front of her children, her role as a mother and as a representative of authority at home is immediately endangered. How can a child be expected to obey his or her mother when she is not respected by the husband? In addition to this, if a woman gets beaten up by her husband in front of her children, how can she raise them on the basis that boys and girls are equal? Apparently this is very difficult and even embarrassing to the mother since she will be teaching her children the opposite of what they see with their eyes.
The reactions of women to battery tend to vary according to the situation of the family. However, it is noticed that a majority of battered women will stay with their husbands even when they are beaten up regularly or frequently.
In fact, a battered woman will stay with her husband due to several reasons. To start with, many women are willing to bear the pain of battery if they have children. These women fear that a divorce could shatter the lives of their children. Accordingly, they will accept their situations and try to cope with them as long as the wellbeing of their children is maintained.
This is not always possible of course, especially that a husband who beats his wife will most likely be violent with his children as well Brogan, p. The second factor that forces a woman to stay with her violent husband is economic need. A woman who does not have sufficient education, who does not have an independent source of income, and who cannot survive on her own will find it difficult or even impossible to leave her husband, especially if she is very dependent on him.
However, what typically happens in such cases is that the husband becomes more encouraged to be violent with his wife since he is aware that she cannot resist or leave him Brogan, p. A third factor that is usually witnessed in cases of domestic violence against women is that the victims gets used to the situation and since she lacks help or support, she cannot take the decision to end the relationship. Lonely women who feel threatened on their own without their husbands or boyfriends tend to fall into this category.
Domestic violence against women is therefore a violation of the human rights of women, and it is a humiliating situation to which thousands if not millions of women all over the world are subjected. Many methods of prevention and protection have been developed to help bring an end to this problem.
The first step in prevention is education of men and women. When men become aware that battery is a violation of the law and of the human rights of women, and when women become aware of the realities of battery, individuals develop negative perceptions and reactions towards battery. Men will be discouraged from using violence against their wives and at the same time, women will reject such a degrading treatment Brogan, p.
The second step is the enactment of strict laws and regulations that protect women against domestic violence and that hold the violent partner responsible for his acts. In many countries today, the violent partner may not only go to jail, but he may also have to pay a compensation to the wife or girlfriend.
However, there is urgent need for women to be empowered and responsible to themselves in order to understand all the rights and take benefits. Violence against women in India is very old social issue which has taken its root deeply to the societal norms and economic dependence. This issue of violence against women come forth time to time in the form of brutal gang-rape, sexual harassment at work place, acid attack, etc.
A big incident of violence against women was happened in Delhi on 16th of December in It was a brutal gang rape of the 23 year old woman in India. A huge crowd of anger people come out to the street by having a call for change. Even after happening such type of cases regularly in the society, it is not going to change the societal norms against women. It is going very complex and deeply rooted in the Indian society even after increasing education level of the people. Violence against women happens because of inefficient legal justice system, weak rules of law and male dominated social and political structures.
According to the research it is found that violence against women begins at home in the early age especially in the rural areas by the family members, relatives, neighbors, and friends. Situation of the women varies all over the country according to the place, culture and tradition of people. Women in the north-eastern provinces and south have better position than other regions.
Because of the practice of female infanticide, the number of girl child has been very less in comparison to the male child almost women to men according to the census. Such a huge decrease in the percentage of female child is because of the sex-selective abortions and negligence of young girls during infancy.
According to the National Crime Records Bureau, women in India are very much unsafe in their marital home. Other common violence against women in the society are domestic violence, acid attacks, rape, honor killings, dowry deaths, abduction, and brutal behavior by husbands and in-laws. Women in India have been victims of violence from many years in almost all the societies, regions, cultures and religious communities.
Women in the Indian society have to bear variety of violence such as domestic, public, physical, social, emotional and mental. Violence against women is clearly seen in the history to a large extent which is still getting practiced without any positive change.
Women in India were enjoying a quite comfortable position all through the Vedic period however, the condition got declined gradually because of the practice of violence against women all through the country. On the other hand, with the increasing level of violence against women they started losing their educational, social, political, economic, and cultural opportunities in the society.
They became restricted to live their normal lifestyle like healthy diet, wishful dress, marriage, etc. It was huge effort of male dominated country to make women limited and obedient. They started being enslaved and prostituted.
Women in India started being used as commodities for the men to perform different functions of daily routine. There is a culture in the society for women to understand husband as a God, keep fast for their wellness and be depended on husbands. Widows were restricted to marry again and forced to follow sati pratha. Men understood their rights to beat women with rope or a bamboo stick. Violence against woman took a very fast speed when young girls were forced to serve as a Devadasi in the temple.
It given rise to the prostitution system as a part of the religious life. The fight of two major cultures Islam and Hinduism in the medieval period has increased the violence against women to a great extent. Young girls were forced to marry in the very early age and follow purdah system in the society.
It made them isolated from almost whole world except their husband and family. Female infanticide, dowry system and bride-killings are other big violence. Women are also facing lack of nutritious food, negligence to medicine and proper checkup, lack of educational opportunities, sexual abuse of girl child, rapes, forced and unwanted marriages, sexual harassment at public, home or work place, unwanted pregnancies at small intervals, bride-burning, wife-battering, negligence of old women in family, etc.
In order to reduce the number of offenses and crimes against women in India, another Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children law, has been made by the Indian government. It is done so to replace the earlier Indian juvenile delinquency law of especially after the Nirbhaya case during which an accused juvenile was released. In this act, the juvenile age has been reduced by two years means 16 years from 18 years in cases of heinous offenses.
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