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Since affirmative action was first proven effective in the s, conditions have changed. It is now necessary to consider merit instead of simple statistical qualities Sturm Prejudice is no longer simply a matter of socioeconomic status or gender or ethnicity and the only way left to rise above social prejudices is through attention to individual value, rather than group identification Sidanius It might be easier to hope that affirmative action is still valid and effective, but social conditions change over time and a new tactic needs to be considered for addressing the issues that actually account for prejudice in the modern age, rather than the symptom of decades past.
As noted in the findings of Coate and Loury:. This can be especially true in an economic situation that currently faces the nation. Presently, finding employment is very difficult for almost everyone in the country as job growth continues to diminish. The influence that affirmative action has on the hiring process can, even if unwarranted, lead to hostile feelings and tension between races.
Individuals that do not secure a job could blame the minorities that have jobs at a company because they received aid from a government program. Individuals that claim this will usually also state that affirmative action will overlook a better-suited white worker to hire a minority worker in his place.
Regardless of whether this claim is true, the mere existence of a program like affirmative action can create an environment of hostility and tension for minority workers even if they are the most qualified for the job. In fact, the system in place can create an atmosphere where regardless of the skill set of a minority worker, they will be underappreciated and have their skills downplayed because of the rationale that they were hired simply because they belong to a minority.
The statistical information provided from his study backs this statement, however the interesting aspect that he raises is the incorporation of the scrutiny that the program had to endure. He notes the affirmative action has:. Generally, the racially discriminative practices that were once common occurrences during the early to mid 20th century have subsided, yet research shows a type of "reverse discrimination" that has been the result.
Society has moved more and more towards a world where the practices that the program is trying to defend against are becoming obsolete. This is not to claim that racism, as a whole is not an issue, however it is becoming, in some cases, almost an issue in the reverse of what was originally intended from the implication of affirmative action.
The program now almost creates an opposite effect. Instead of continuing the practices that affirmative action has laid out for minorities--both men and women, the system should be looked at from the interior workings of companies. It is no longer as prevalent of an issue of getting the minority workers into entry-level positions within a company and the history of affirmative action in education demonstrates the need for restructuring.
The issue presents itself with their promotion and advancement once they have secured employment Thomas, Jr. By reconstructing the system, affirmative action can:. While this is still not the ideal solution to the iniquities which accompany affirmative action, it is a definite step in the right direction.
The issue of affirmative action can be applied to a larger issue for the nation as a whole, namely:. Instead, a solution that will either cover up the problem or keep it from becoming larger is created and replaced as needed over time. This is exactly what is seen with the issue of affirmative action. When it was first implemented in America, the issue of racial discrimination , as well as gender discrimination, was a large issue in the world of both employment and academics.
However, instead of combating the problem and making fundamental changes to the way that society deals with and views race and gender, the United States was forced to implement a program that forced those that may discriminate in their choosing process to have a certain number of openings be filled by minorities.
As noted, when first implemented this system was not only needed but successful, however as it becomes more and more clear that the program has become outdated and needs either a major overhaul or to be shut down. The factors of lack of public empathy and general laziness have reemerged and slowed the progression to a unified solution. Affirmative action did its job effectively and admirably, however society has shifted since it was first put into effect. This program has served its purpose and should be allowed to be retired with dignity knowing that it helped many minorities take the first step towards equality, especially during times when racism was a much larger issue that permeated into many different facets of everyday life.
To combat some of the issues that currently face affirmative action, there could be some changes that make it more of an all-encompassing program: Since there are initiatives and programs that already do a job similar to these, they could merge with affirmative action and form a larger, more powerful means to help those that have risen from a troubled upbringing. Case studies in various workplace scenarios have proven the relative ineffectiveness and unexpected results of the program.
A new system that addresses the issues that are more prevalent to today such as equal opportunity for advancement of a career should be investigated. Therefore the court found that promoting members of any one group for no reason other than race or ethnic origin is discrimination. And the court acknowledge, that affirmative action was permissible if past discrimination had existed and if minority statue was but one of several consideration in admission process.
Then by s the court began handing down decisions that gave much greater weigh to reverse discrimination claims. The court limited states use of racial preferences policies, and in the Adarand constructors vs. Pena , the court ruled that federal affirmative action programs is unconstitutional unless they fulfilled a compelling interest. Reverse Discrimination, Here are a few reverse discrimination cases the Supreme Court heard and ruled on. In a potentially influential case, white and Hispanic firefighters in New Haven, Conn, made a claim of racial bias in promotion.
June 3, The case where the Federal Aviation Admn. Home Essays Affirmative Action Paper. Affirmative Action Paper 4 April We will write a custom essay sample on. A limited time offer!
- Affirmative action programs are often misunderstood. Each person has their own idea of what affirmative action really entails. This paper will provide an overview of the legal aspect of affirmative action. The differences between affirmative action programs and equal opportunity legislation will be explained.
Oh, E., Choi, C.-C., Neville, H. A., Anderson, C. J., & Landrum-Brown, J. (). Beliefs about affirmative action: a test of the group self-interest and racism beliefs models. Journal of Diversity in higher Education, 3(3), Sabbagh, D. (). Affirmative action: the U.S. experience in comparative perspectives. Daedalus, (2), /5(3).
The arguments for affirmative action are somewhat different and have changed over the course of this practice. As a new type of anti–affirmative action ideology has developed, affirmative action advocates have answered the challenge. The Argument for Affirmative Action. The historical origins of the argument for affirmative action are obvious. Affirmative action is one of the most effective tools for redressing the injustices caused by our nation's historic discrimination against people of color and women, and for leveling what has long been an uneven playing field. A centuries-long legacy of racism and sexism has not been eradicated despite the gains made during the civil rights era.
Affirmative action is one of the most controversial and important social policy decisions adopted by the United States in the past decades. Though initially employed to help address decades and centuries of economic, political, and legal subjugation of non-white Americans, affirmative action is a long-since outlived policy choice that is no longer 5/5(1). Reverse discrimination is a term that is used of affirmative action to refer to the policies that the government designed to remedy historical effects of past discrimination. Affirmative action was introduced after the Civil Rights Act of during the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson.