Summarize tips for conducting an effective interview. Following is a list of principles and qualities applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection: Phenomenology searches for the meaning or essence of an experience rather than measurements or explanations. Researcher should begin with the practice of Epoche. He or she will describe their own experiences or ideas related to phenomenon to increase their own awareness of their underlying feelings.
Phenomenology is different in that the researcher is often participatory and the other participants are co-researchers in many cases. This type of research focuses on the wholeness of the experience, rather than its individual parts. Phenomenology differs from other research in that it does not test a hypothesis, nor is there an expectation that the results predictive or reproducible. Additional studies into the same phenomenon often reveal new and additional meanings.
The study can be applied to a single case or deliberately selected samples. A phenomenological research study typically follows the four steps listed below: Bracketing — The process of identifying, and keeping in check, any preconceived beliefs, opinions or notions about the phenomenon being researched.
Bracketing is important to phenomenological reduction, which is the process of isolating the phenomenon and separating it from what is already known about it.
Intuition — This requires that the researcher become totally immersed in the study and the phenomenon and that the researcher remains open to the meaning of the phenomenon as described by those that experienced it. The process of intuition results in an understanding of the phenomenon and may require the researcher to vary the data collection methods or questions until that level of understanding emerges. Analysis — The process of analyzing data involves the researcher becoming full immersed into the rich, descriptive data and using processes such as coding and categorizing to organize the data.
The goal is to develop themes that can be used to describe the experience from the perspective of those that lived it. Description — This is the last phase of the process. The researcher will use his or her understanding of the data to describe and define the phenomenon and communicate it to others. The descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Journal of Phenomenological psychology , 43 1 , The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure.
Journal of phenomenological psychology , 28 2 , Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. Human studies , 8 3 , Existential-phenomenological perspectives in psychology: Exploring the breadth of human experience , IPA studies do not test theories, then, but they are often relevant to the development of existing theories.
One might use the findings of a study on the meaning of sexual intimacy to gay men in close relationships, for example, to re-examine the adequacy of theories which attempt to predict and explain safe sex practices. After transcribing the data, the researcher works closely and intensively with the text, annotating it closely 'coding' for insights into the participants' experience and perspective on their world.
As the analysis develops, the researcher catalogues the emerging codes, and subsequently begins to look for patterns in the codes. These patterns are called 'themes'. Themes are recurring patterns of meaning ideas, thoughts, feelings throughout the text. Themes are likely to identify both something that matters to the participants i.
Some themes will eventually be grouped under much broader themes called 'superordinate themes'. For example, 'Feeling anxious and overwhelmed during the first driving lessons' might be a superordinate category which captures a variety of patterns in participants' embodied, emotional and cognitive experiences of the early phases of learning to drive, where we might expect to find sub-themes relating to, say, 'Feeling nervous,' 'Worrying about losing control,' and 'Struggling to manage the complexities of the task.
In IPA, a good analysis is one which balances phenomenological description with insightful interpretation, and which anchors these interpretations in the participants' accounts. It is also likely to maintain an idiographic focus so that particular variations are not lost , and to keep a close focus on meaning rather than say, causal relations.
A degree of transparency contextual detail about the sample, a clear account of process, adequate commentary on the data, key points illustrated by verbatim quotes is also crucial to estimating the plausibility and transferability of an IPA study. Engagement with credibility issues such as cross-validation, cooperative inquiry , independent audit, or triangulation is also likely to increase the reader's confidence. Due to an increased interest in the constructed nature of certain aspects of illness how we perceive bodily and mental symptoms , IPA has been particularly recommended for its uses in the field of health psychology.
With a general increase in the number of IPA studies published over the last decade  has come the employment of this method in a variety of fields including business organisational psychology , sexuality, and key life transitions such as transitioning into motherhood .
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The Possibilities of Phenomenology for Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, An introduction to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Giving voice and making sense in Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3: British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology".
Qualitative Method of Research: Phenomenological Mark George Bound, Ph. D. Nova Southeastern University October 10, Qualitative Inquiry: Phenomenological Research This course identifies five different methods of qualitative research inquiry, narrative, phenomenological, participatory action.
A qualitative "approach" is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. here, four of the major qualitative approaches are introduced.
4 Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry I n this chapter, we begin our detailed exploration of narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and . Mar 15, · A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis.
Phenomenology in business research focuses on experiences, events and occurrences with disregard or minimum regard for the external and physical reality. Phenomenology, also known as non-positivism, is a variation of interpretivism, along with other variations such as hermeneutics, symbolic interactionism and others. Phenomenological Research Guidelines - Provides an overview of phenomenological research including data collection, analysis and presentation topics. Phenomenological Research Methods – Contains a detailed descriptive of different types of phenomenological research methods.