To the Egyptians, pilots of small planes didn't sound terribly alarming, but they [pass] on the message to the CIA anyway, fully expecting Washington to request information. The request never [comes]. Jordanian intelligence the GID makes a communications intercept deemed so important that King Abdullah's men relay it to Washington.
To make doubly sure the message gets through it is passed through an Arab intermediary to a German intelligence agent. The message states that a major attack, code named "The Big Wedding," is planned inside the US, and that aircraft will be used.
The German newspaper Der Spiegel later reports that this month the US company Raytheon landed a six times in a military base in New Mexico without any pilots on board.
This was done to test equipment making future hijackings more difficult, by allowing ground control to take over the flying of a hijacked plane. For instance, the Observer quotes an expert who says "the technology is pretty much there" but still untried.
NSA expert James Bamford later states, "the terrorist cell that eventually took over the airliner that crashed into the Pentagon ended up living, working, planning and developing all their activities in Laurel, Maryland, which happens to be the home of the NSA.
So they were actually living alongside NSA employees as they were plotting all these things. The French magazine Maximale and the Moroccan newspaper al-Ittihad al-Ichtiraki later simultaneously report that a Moroccan agent named Hassan Dabou had penetrated al-Qaeda to the point of getting close to bin Laden by this time.
Dabou claims he learns that bin Laden is "very disappointed" that the bombing had not toppled the WTC, and plans "large scale operations in New York in the summer or fall of Russian President Putin later states that suicide pilots are training for attacks on US targets.
More than that, Moscow warned Washington about preparation to these actions a couple of weeks before they happened. Former CIA agent Robert Baer is advising a prince in a Persian Gulf royal family, when a military associate of this prince passes information to him about a "spectacular terrorist operation" that will take place shortly. He is also given a computer record of around secret al-Qaeda operatives in Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
He is also given evidence that a Saudi merchant family had funded the USS Cole bombing, and that the Yemeni government is covering up information related to that bombing. At the military officer's request, he offers all this information to the Saudi Arabian government. Large sections of Baer's book are blacked out, having been censored by the CIA. Britain gives the US another warning about an al-Qaeda attack.
The previous British warning was vague as to method, but this warning specifies multiple airplane hijackings. This warning is included in Bush's briefing on August 6. President Bush receives a classified intelligence briefing at his Crawford, Texas ranch indicating that bin Laden might be planning to hijack commercial airliners. Yet Bush later states the briefing "said nothing about an attack on America. The report cited uncorroborated information obtained in that bin Laden wanted to hijack airplanes to gain the release of US-held extremists.
It also described FBI judgments about patterns of activity consistent with preparations for hijackings or other types of attacks, and a number of bin Laden-related investigations underway. At some point between these dates, Israel warns the US that an al-Qaeda attack is imminent. Allegations that there was are complete and utter nonsense. After just one day of training, most of the staff is suspicious that he's a terrorist.
They discuss "how much fuel [is] on board a , and how much damage that could cause if it hit[s] anything. This man wants training on a A fully loaded with fuel could be used as a weapon! Based on the concerns of flight school staff, Zacarias Moussaoui is arrested and detained in Minnesota on the excuse of an immigration violation. But when arresting him, they note he possesses two knives, fighting gloves and shin guards, and had prepared "through physical training for violent confrontation.
For example, he is supposedly in the US working as a "marketing consultant" for a computer company, but is unable to provide any details of his employment. But no such warning is ever sent. August 22, A: They believe he spent time in Afghanistan.
He had been on a French watch list for several years, preventing him from entering France. A French justice official later says the government gave the FBI "everything we had" on Moussaoui, "enough to make you want to check this guy out every way you can. Anyone paying attention would have seen he was not only operational in the militant Islamist world but had some autonomy and authority as well. August 22, B: He says it's partly because of a recent power play against him, but also because of repeated obstruction of his investigations into al-Qaeda.
August 23, A: According to German newspapers, the Mossad gives the CIA a list of terrorists living in the US, and say that they appear to be planning to carry out an attack in the near future. Yet apparently this warning and list are not treated as particularly urgent by the CIA. Nor are they passed on to the FBI. It's not clear if this warning influenced the adding of Alhazmi and Almihdhar to a terrorism watch list on this same day, and if so, why only those two. August 23, B: They're not going to bomb that place again.
I think they're going to try again. That night, he tells colleague Jerry Hauer, "We're due for something big. I don't like the way things are lining up in Afghanistan" a probable reference to the assassination of Afghan leader General Massoud on September 9. In the wake of the French intelligence report on Zacarias Moussaoui, FBI agents in Minnesota are "in a frenzy" and "absolutely convinced he [is] planning to do something with a plane.
Headquarters personnel bring up "almost ridiculous questions in their apparent efforts to undermine the probable cause.
August 24, A: The message says that the FBI is investigating Moussaoui for possible involvement in the planning of a terrorist attack and mentions his efforts to obtain flight training.
It also suggests he might be "involved in a larger plot to target airlines traveling from Europe to the US. August 24, B: Nawaf Alhazmi does the same the next day. Procedures are in place for law enforcement agencies to share watch list information with airlines and airports. Such sharing is common, but the FAA and the airlines are not notified, so the purchases raise no red flags.
Most pay using credit cards on the internet. Why would they pay using credit cards in their real names? The supervisor replies that he is trying to get people at FBI headquarters "spun up" because he is trying to make sure that Moussaoui does "not take control of a plane and fly it into the World Trade Center. We don't know he's a terrorist.
You don't have enough to show he is a terrorist. You have a guy interested in this type of aircraft - that is it. August 28, A: The reason given is a "wall" between criminal and intelligence work - Almihdhar could not be tied to the Cole investigation without the inclusion of sensitive intelligence information.
August 28, B: Minnesota is trying to prove that Moussaoui is connected to al-Qaeda through a rebel group in Chechnya, but the RFU agent removes information connecting the Chechnya rebels to al-Qaeda.
She says "I feel that certain facts August September 4, According to Egyptian President Mubarak, Egyptian intelligence warns American officials that bin Laden's network is in the advanced stages of executing a significant operation against an American target, probably within the US.
US officials deny receiving any such warning from Egypt. An Iranian man known as Ali S. He calls it "an attack that will change the world. German police later confirm the calls.
Similar warnings also come from a Moroccan man being held in a Brazilian jail. Antoinette DiLorenzo, teaching English to a class of Pakistani immigrants, asks a student gazing out the window, "What are you looking at?
They won't be standing there next week. An MSNBC reporter later sets out to disprove this "urban myth," but to his surprise finds all the details of the story are confirmed. The fact that the family are recent immigrants from Pakistan might mean the information came from Pakistan. Investigators believe it was an accident. This was a nicely protected little secret that circulated in the community around here.
Between 6 and 7 September, The Chicago Board Options Exchange saw purchases of 4, put option contracts [a speculation that the stock will go down] in UAL versus call options [a speculation that stock will go up]. On 10 September, more trading in Chicago saw the purchase of 4, put options in American Airlines, the other airline involved in the hijackings.
This compares with a mere call options in American purchased that day. No other airlines saw such trading in their put options. Hijacker Ziad Jarrah is stopped in Maryland for speeding, ticketed and released.
No red flags show up when his name is run through the computer by the state police. However, he already had been questioned in United Arab Emirates at the request of the CIA for "suspected involvement in terrorist activities.
September 10, A: The books are cooked routinely year after year. September 10, B: CBS later reports that on this day, bin Laden is admitted to a military hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, for kidney dialysis treatment.
Pakistani military forces guard bin Laden. They also move out all the regular staff in the urology department and send in a secret team to replace them. It is not known how long he stayed. September 10, C: On the same day, he sends a request for budget increases to the White House.
It covers 68 programs, but none of them relate to counter-terrorism. He also sends a memorandum to his heads of departments, stating his seven priorities - none of them relating to counter-terrorism.
This is more than a little strange, since Ashcroft stopped flying public airplanes in July due to terrorist threats see July 26, and he told a Senate committee in May that counter-terrorism was his "highest priority. September 10, D: The trading ratio on United Airlines is 25 times greater than normal at the Pacific Exchange.
Pacific Exchange officials later decline to state if this abnormality is being investigated. September 10, E: According to CBS News, in the afternoon before the attack, "alarm bells were sounding over unusual trading in the US stock options market.
Both the FBI and the Justice Department have confirmed the use of such programs for US intelligence gathering through at least this summer. This would confirm that CIA should have had additional advance warning of imminent attacks against American and United Airlines planes. September 10, F: US officials later admit American agents had infiltrated al-Qaeda cells in the US, though how many and how long they had been in al-Qaeda remains a mystery.
On this day, electronic intercepts connected to these undercover agents hear messages such as: September 10, G: Eight hours prior to the attacks, San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown receives a warning from "my security people at the airport" advising him to be cautious in traveling. September 10, H: She is told by Cheney's top aide on this day "that it might be another six months before he would be able to review the material.
September 10, I: Why that same information was not available to the people who died aboard the four hijacked commercial aircraft may become a hot topic on the Hill. September 10, J: Former president Bush is with a brother of Osama bin Laden at a Carlyle business conference. The conference is interrupted the next day by the attacks.
September 11, A: Attendees had just arrived when the first WTC attack occurs. This base is the center of the nation's military defenses, and the same base that Bush will fly to later in the day. The timing, probable attendance, and location of the meeting is curious, to say the least, as is the total lack of any mention of the meeting anywhere, except for one aside by a business leader Anne Tatlock, CEO and President of Fiduciary and Franklin explaining why she survived the WTC attack.
September 11, B: An advertisement for a "homeland security" event in will mention the following curious sentence: Little did they know that the scenario would come true in a dramatic way that day. It draws its personnel from the military and the CIA. The government calls the simulation just a "bizarre coincidence. September 11, C: Unusually large sums of money were rushed through computers even as the disaster unfolded. They thought that the records of their transactions could not be traced after the main frames were destroyed.
September 11, D: At least 3, people are killed. According to officials, the entire US is defended by only 14 fighters two planes each in seven military bases. I don't know of anybody that ever thought through that. Timeline for the Day of the Attacks.
In the event of a hijacking, the FAA hijack coordinator on duty at Washington headquarters requests the military to provide escort aircraft. If a plane deviates by 15 degrees, or two miles from that course, the flight controllers will hit the panic button.
They'll call the plane, saying "American 11, you're deviating from course. If NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command hears of any difficulties in the skies, they begin the work to scramble jet fighters [ take off and intercept aircraft that are off course ]. Between Sep and June fighters were scrambled 67 times.
According to an Air Force timeline, a series of military planes provided an emergency escort to Payne's stricken Lear about 20 minutes after ground controllers lost contact with his plane.
Approximately two hours prior to the first attack, two workers in Israel at the instant messaging company Odigo receive messages warning of the WTC attack. This Israeli owned company has its headquarters two blocks from the WTC. The two employees claim not to know who sent the warnings. At the same time that flight controllers are asking Flight 11 to climb to 35, feet, the transponder stops transmitting. Air traffic manager Glenn Michael says later, "We considered it at that time to be a possible hijacking.
Flight 11 starts to veer dramatically off course around this time. Boston flight control decides that Flight 11 has probably been hijacked, but they don't notify other air traffic control centers for another five minutes, and don't notify NORAD for about another 20 minutes. There's a gap there that will have to be investigated.
Nydia Gonzales also listens in from 8: Ong talks for 25 minutes, until the plane crashes. The FBI says that only the first four minutes were recorded, but won't release the tape. The pilot of Flight 11, John Ogonowski, activates the talk-back button, enabling Boston air traffic controllers to hear a hijacker on Flight 11 say to the passengers: Just stay quiet and you will be OK.
We are returning to the airport. If you try to make any moves you'll endanger yourself and the airplane. Boston Air Traffic Control radar sees Flight 11 making an unplanned degree turn to the south they're already way off-course. Flight controllers say they never lost sight of the flight, though they could no longer determine altitude once the transponder was turned off. On the screen, the plane showed a squiggly line after its turn near Albany, then it straightened.
Two F fighters are ordered to scramble from Otis Air National Guard Base in Massachusetts to find Flight 11, approximately miles from the known location of the plane and miles from New York City. Fighters in nearer bases are not scrambled. This is minutes after NORAD has been told the plane was hijacked, approximately 26 minutes after losing contact with the plane.
Finally, someone sees a "green dot that's not identified. Almost as soon as it's discovered, it disappears. Before a turn at 8: For instance, "Controllers scrambled to direct other planes out of the way of both United and American Airlines Flight 11", and several collisions were barely averted.
Flight 11 slams into the north tower, 1 World Trade Center. Investigators believe it still had about 10, gallons of fuel and was traveling mph. Bush's motorcade left for the school at 8: As it was arriving at the school, pagers and cell phones alerted White House aides that a plane had hit the North Tower of the World Trade Center.
Bush remembers senior adviser Karl Rove bringing him the news, saying it appeared to be an accident involving a small, twin-engine plane. Eventually they are recalled to Andrews and land there at some point after Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon. Traveling even at mph, at least one of the F's could have returned to Washington within 10 minutes and started patrolling the skies well before 9: Why were they recalled so late, and then ordered back to base and then to take off again instead of being sent straight to Washington?
Flight 77 from Washington goes severely off course. It heads due north for a while, then flies due south and gets back on course.
According to regulations a fighter should have scrambled to see what was going on. She tells him, ''they had box cutters and knives. They rounded up the passengers at the back of the plane. She calls back and says the plane is turning around. They go after Flight instead. Paul Weaver, director of the Air National Guard, "the pilots flew 'like a scalded ape,' topping mph but were unable to catch up to the airliner.
Larry Arnold says they were headed straight for New York City and traveling about to mph. Timothy Duffy, one of the pilots, before takeoff, a fellow officer had told him "This looks like the real thing. I just wanted to get there. I was in full-blower all the way. F's can travel over mph. An at average speed of mph, they would have reached it in 10 minutes - 9: According to the New York Times , by this time if not earlier , it is clear Flight 77 has gone missing.
Bush later makes the following statement. It must have been a horrible accident. T he New York Times points out that they also probably knew Flight 77 was hijacked a few minutes after 8: So by this time Bush certainly knew two planes were hijacked and headed towards New York City, and probably knew of a third hijacking.
Yet he can only think "There's one terrible pilot"? Flight , hits the south tower, 2 World Trade Center. If they were still 70 miles away, then that means they must have been traveling about mph, when the top speed for an F is mph!
A few minutes after 9: They are notified to get F's armed and ready to fly. Missiles are still being loaded onto the F's when the Pentagon is hit over half an hour later. Minutes after the second WTC crash at 9: The commander at Syracuse, New York says he can get a plane in the air armed with cannon in ten minutes. Yet none of these planes are put in the air until after the last hijacked plane crashes over an hour later. Yet the order to scramble won't come till 9: Around this time, the FAA command center reports 11 aircraft either not in communication with FAA facilities, or flying unexpected routes.
Major General Paul Weaver states Flight 77 came back on the radar scope at 9: No fighters are scrambled in specific response, now or later there is the possibility some fighters sent after Flight 77 later headed towards Flight F fighters from Langley Air Force Base could have reached Washington in six minutes if they traveled at mph maximum speed for an F is mph. Even if the fighters were traveling slower, and it took some minutes to get the plane off the ground, they still could easily have made it to Washington in those 25 minutes and prevented the Flight 77 crash.
Is such a long delay believable, or has that information been doctored to cover the lack of any scrambling of fighters? Additionally, with the exception of Vice President Cheney and possibly a few others, no one is evacuated in Washington until after the Pentagon crash.
A Pentagon spokesman says, "The Pentagon was simply not aware that this aircraft was coming our way. The plane has been hijacked. We are in the air. They've already knifed a guy. There is a bomb on board. He also had a headset like phone operators use, so he could have made the call unnoticed. Note that original versions of this conversation appear to have been censored.
The most recent account has the phone call ending with, "We are in the air. They already knifed a guy. One of them has a gun. They're saying there is a bomb onboard. Please call the authorities. The call wasn't recorded, but Deena's call immediately afterwards to was, and she states on that, "They just knifed a passenger and there are guns on the plane. Langley is miles from Washington.
Ready aircraft at Andrews Air Force Base, 15 miles away, are not scrambled. A rare example of competence. But earlier, according to their own timeline, they waited six minutes before scrambling fighters after Flight Flight 77 had supposedly been missing from the radar screen since 8: Why wait 31 minutes to send a plane and find out where it is?
Bush leaves the elementary school classroom, and as he leaves, makes a few brief comments to reporters, calling the crashes "an apparent terrorist attack on our country. The F's scrambled towards Flight 77 get airborne. The maximum speed of an F is mph. Yet they obviously don't. The hijackers make an announcement to the passengers in Flight 77, telling them to phone their families as they are "all going to die".
They also told the passengers that they were going to hit the White House. They carry him under his arms - nearly lifting him off the ground - and propel him down the steps into the White House basement and through a long tunnel towards an underground bunker.
Was he meant to remain visibly out of the loop? Another article claims this happened to Cheney at 9: According to the New York Times , Flight 77 was lost at 8: Washington air traffic control sees a fast moving blip on their radar at this time and sends a warning to Dulles Airport in Washington. One doesn't need a transponder signal to get a radar signal!
Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon. The section of the Pentagon hit consists mainly of newly renovated, unoccupied offices. Approximately are later determined killed or missing. The surface to air missiles presumably surrounding the Pentagon are not fired in defense. Fighters are supposedly still miles or 12 minutes away.
A man calls from a bathroom on Flight 93, crying, "We're being hijacked, we're being hijacked! The south tower of the World Trade Center collapses. It was hit by Flight at 9: During this time, there apparently are no calls from Flight The only exception is Richard Makely, who was listening to the Jeremy Glick open phone line after Glick went to attack the hijackers.
A reporter summarizes Makely explaining that, "The silence lasted two minutes, then there was screaming. More silence, followed by more screams. Finally, there was a mechanical sound, followed by nothing.
CBS television reports at some point before the crash that two F fighters are tailing Flight Flight 93 crashes in Pennsylvania. The World Trade Center's north tower collapses. It was hit by Flight 11 at 8: Cheney calls Bush and tells him of a threat to Air Force One.
He is told it would take between 40 minutes and 90 minutes to get a protective fighter escort up to Air Force One. For one, why wouldn't Air Force One already have a fighter escort, and why would it take so long for new planes to arrive?
There already are fighters flying over Washington since well before Building 7 of the World Trade Center collapses. And they made that decision to pull, and then we watched the building collapse.
September 11, E: After boarding, the crew tells the passengers that the flight has been canceled. Three Middle Eastern men on board refuse to get off the plane. They argue with a member of the flight crew. Security is called, but before security arrives, the men escape.
September 11, F: Initially deployed "on the fly," executive directives on government continuity in the face of a crisis dating back to the Reagan administration are put into effect. Approximately mid-level officials are moved to underground bunkers and stay there 24 hours a day.
Officials rotate in and out on a day cycle. When its existence is revealed, some controversy arises because of the exclusion of any Democrats from it. In fact, top Congressional Democrats had never even heard of it until journalists broke the story.
September 11, G: A few hours after the attacks, German intelligence intercepts a phone conversation between followers of bin Laden that leads the FBI to search frantically for two more teams of suicide hijackers, according to US and German officials.
The Germans overhear the terrorists refer to "the 30 people traveling for the operation. About forty are accounted for as dead or in custody; ten are missing. They also believe a total of 27 suspected terrorists received some form of pilot training. This corresponds with many analyses that the attacks would have needed a large support network. What happened to the rest of the 40 or 50? September 11, H: A National Public Radio correspondent states: So this is not entirely unexpected.
September 11, I: Senator Orrin Hatch R tells the Associated Press that the US government was monitoring bin Laden's communications electronically, and overheard two bin Laden aides celebrating the successful terrorist attack.
September 11, J: Two of Atta's bags from an early flight from Portland are not loaded onto Flight 11 and are discovered. They contain a handheld electronic flight computer, a simulator procedures manual for Boeing and aircraft, two videotapes relating to "air tours" of the Boeing and aircraft, a slide-rule flight calculator, a copy of the Koran, Atta's passport, his international driver's license, a religious cassette tape, airline uniforms, a letter of recommendation, "education related documentation," a note to other hijackers on how to mentally prepare for the hijacking, and Atta's will written in A former high-level intelligence official told me, 'Whatever trail was left was left deliberately—for the FBI to chase.
Why would the airline uniforms be where they couldn't be used in the hijacking? In fact, why bring anything at all unless it is to leave it behind and send a message? September 11, K: According to Mark Crispin Miller, a Professor of Media Studies at New York University who investigated the issue, the footage was filmed during the funeral of nine people killed the day before by Israeli authorities.
He said "to show it without explaining the background, and to show it over and over again is to make propaganda for the war machine and is irresponsible. September 11, L: Five Israelis are arrested for "puzzling behavior" related to the WTC attacks. They are arrested around 4: They were spotted by a neighbor who called the police and the FBI.
The police tracked them down in a van with the words "Urban Moving Systems" written on the side. It looked like they're hooked in with this. It looked like they knew what was going to happen. The FBI interrogates them for weeks. September 11, M: Six air traffic controllers who dealt with two of the hijacked airliners make a tape recording describing the events, but the tape is later destroyed by a supervisor without anyone making a transcript or even listening to it.
September 11, N: Did the Air Force send up planes after the hijacked aircraft? The Air Force won't say. It says they keep about 20 F and F fighters on duty with Air National Guards along the nation's coastline, ready to inspect unknown aircraft entering U. Some airline pilots are wondering whether the FAA did enough to try to prevent the crashes. The official story is that there were no fighters at Andrews so none took off from there to intercept the hijacked planes, but it takes a few days for the media to come around to that point of view: Air National Guard is also based there and equipped with F fighter planes, a National Guard spokesman said.
But the fighters took to the skies over Washington only after the devastating attack on the Pentagon As part of its dual mission, the th provides capable and ready response forces for the District of Columbia in the event of a natural disaster or civil emergency. Previously its mission was "to provide combat units in the highest possible state of readiness. The Guardian says, "the idea that Atta's passport had escaped from that inferno unsinged [tests] the credulity of the staunchest supporter of the FBI's crackdown on terrorism.
Note the passport did not belong to Atta, as is sometimes claimed. A Pentagon official, when asked if the US shot down Flight 93 the flight that crashed in Pennsylvania , says "We have not ruled out that. So, supposedly, when Flight 93 crashed, Bush had to ask, "Did we shoot it down or did it crash? Members of bin Laden's family and important Saudis are "driven or flown under FBI supervision to a secret assembly point in Texas, and then to Washington from where they left the country on a private charter plane when airports reopened three days after the attacks.
Top White House officials personally approve these evacuations. They then fly a private out of the country. Multiple s with Arabic lettering on their sides are already there, suggesting another secret assembly point. There have been conflicting reports as to whether the FBI interviewed these people before they left the country. September 14, A: Flight 77's Boeing included 2 Rolls Royce engines made of Steel and Titanium which were 9 feet in diameter and 12 feet long, weighing 6 tons each.
Jet Fuel is a hydrocarbon which can maintain a constant temperature of degrees Celsius after 40 minutes of burn time, but only if the fuel source is maintained. Most of the jet fuel would have burned off in the subsequent explosion upon impact, therefore it is scientifically impossible that 12 tons of titanium and steel were vaporized by jet fuel.
Investigators found only a single turbo jet engine in the wreckage, 3 feet in diameter. After the AP published the photo readers suggested is was a piece from the APU located in the tail section of a Boeing Honeywell's aerospace division, the manufacturer of the APU for Boeing was contacted, and refuted any claim that the piece was from an APU. Brown, a spokesperson for Rolls Royce said that the picture does not depict any piece from any Rolls Royce engine he was familiar with.
Investigators recovered what they claim was a piece of the fuselage, and claim this is proof that Flight 77 hit the pentagon, however this piece could have been taken from an American Airlines flight, and the piece is not scratched and doesn't have any burn marks from the explosion, the paint is still perfectly in place. If Flight 77 vaporized upon impact it would be the first time in aviation history. What did survive was a mountain of wreckage, fire, smoke, tail section, wing sections, cockpit, engine.
Damage to the Pentagon is completely inconsistent with the shape of a Boeing Before the roof of the Pentagon collapsed, a single 16 foot diameter hole could be seen in the ground floor.
Where is the damage from the wing sections, engines, and vertical stabilizers. Damage on the 3rd ring of the Pentagon on the inside was consistent with the outside, the same 16 foot diameter hole. The plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center at 8: The impact killed hundreds of people and trapped hundred more in the floors above.
People trapped by the damage and flames leaped off the side of the building to their deaths, desperate to escape Weinberg. Both buildings collapsed and severely damaged five other buildings in the World Trade Center complex. Once hijacked, the attackers steered the plane towards the Pentagon where they slammed into the west side of the building, workplace to twenty four thousand people Schmemann. After learning about the other attacks, passengers on the fourth plane, United Airlines Boeing , Flight 93, decided to take matter into their own hands.
Fighting back, the passengers were able to steer the plane from its original target, Washington D. All in all, almost three thousand people were killed from a total of ninety three nations. In addition to the civilians and hijackers, three hundred and forty three firefighters and paramedics were killed, along with twenty three police officers and thirty seven Port Authority police officers.
The death toll was beyond catastrophic and devastating to a nation. The United States invoked their right of self-defense during wartime, meaning that a nation that has been threatened or attacked has the right to defend itself. The country was officially at war. In America, Congress was busy. In October , United States Congress passed the USA Patriot Act , giving law enforcement officials the right to searching property without warrants, detain and deport, monitor financial transactions, and eavesdrop on phone conversations Rowen.
This was met with mixed reviews, as many feared that the law would lead to overzealous infringement on civil liberties. Under the Patriot Act, approximately twelve hundred people were detained for a month without access to their attorneys Rowen.
Before the operation was two months old, the United States had ousted the Taliban from power. It was later revealed in that in , President George W. Bush authorized the National Security Agency in secret to wiretap domestic emails and phone calls without warrants Rowen. The United States also enacted the Department of Homeland Security Act of , an act that created the position of Secretary of Homeland Security and established the Department of Homeland Security, a cabinet-level agency.
The purpose of this department was to ensure the national security of the country, in addition to providing information about terrorist threats and suggested security measures for the public, the government, and hubs like airports Rowen.
Some believe that the implementation of these laws encouraged the breaching of the basic rights and liberties of citizens and non-citizens alike. Read more about civil liberties and the right to privacy. In , the United States troops invaded Iraq, which was not directly related to the attacks but was an important weapon in the War on Terror Green. In December , troops were pulled from Iraq and the United States left them in a state of volatile democracy.
In , President Obama aimed for our presence in Afghanistan to cease to be considered a combat mission, but rather a support mission.
Transcript of 9/11 Research Paper September 11th Research Paper: September 11th constitutes a horrific event in the history of the United States that continues to influence our societal, political and personal decisions.
Papers Research publishes scientific papers addressing aspects of the September 11th attack. The destruction of the Twin Towers. Source Related to Exceptionally High Temperatures, and/or to Persistent Heat at Ground Zero;.
9/11 I chose the events of 9/11 for my research paper because there has not been any other even in U.S. history that has changed America as much as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 9/11 Research: Eye-opening research on 9/11 from major media websites with direct links for verification suggest a major cover-up. Great place .