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Establishing Cause and Effect

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What is Cause and Effect? - The Temporal Issue
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Establishing a Cause-Effect Relationship

Cause is the catalyst or the reason behind the occurrence of some event while effect is its consequence Research — regardless of the type of the paper, research is a must.

Their relationship has to be solid and discussed thoroughly. Avoid discussing causes and effects that have a barely noticeable link Quality over quantity — avoid piling causes and effects one after another. Remember, you should provide a deeper insight into their relationship and use evidence to support your claims. Quality of a cause-effect link beats quantity Choose the method — you can arrange causes and effects in a chronological order, based on the importance, or categorize them.

Choose the approach you find most convenient Smooth transition — to avoid choppiness, use transition words that allow you to switch from one point to another seamlessly. Transition words for causes include: Words for causes include: Use reputable journals, publications, and other respected sources during this process Cause and Effect Essay Topics You get to choose your own cause and effect essay topic? Cause and Effect Essay Topics Ideas: Environment What is the most dangerous factor that affects the world climate changes today?

Has human curiosity had an overall positive or negative effect on the planet? What effect did human curiosity in relation to our planet? What are causes of environmental catastrophes? What could be the effects of global warming on the planet? Social issues What impact does frequent violence either from war or street violence have on a community? What effect makes social networks on real life communications?

What are the causes of poverty in megalopolises? How lack of freedom can effect on the society? What are the effects of living in poor housing? Technology Effects of modern technological progress on children. What impact has the internet on youth? What are effects of using modern technologies during the class work?

How technology development affects the state of nature? What are causes of technological advancements in Japan? Education What are causes and effects of changing a major in the middle of the studies? What makes a person be an excellent student? The causes and effects of an exam failure. The cause and effects of cheating at the exams. What are the effects of student involvement into extra-curricular activities? Psychology Why has depression become one of the most wide-spread illnesses? What makes a person have a good mood?

The effects of stress on students who both study and work. Why is good mental health no less important than physical well-being? What are causes and effects of having an empathy? Causes and effects of vaccination in teenage age. Effects of having smallpox in adult age. What are causes of long-term smoking? What are the causes and effect of insomnia during exam week? Food Cause and effects of eating seafood. Effects of eating only vegetarian food.

Why is it dangerous to eat in cheap fast food restaurants? Effects of eating genetically modified foods. What are the typical causes of loss of appetite? Sport How regular workout improves the productivity of a person? Causes and effects of skipping physical education lessons in school. What are effects of doing sports professionally? Causes and effects of sports violence.

What effect does doing extreme sports have? Culture What is the reason of popularity of movies based on comic books? How listening to favorite music affect the person? Why are summer music festivals so popular among youth? How free music downloading effects the artist What are long-term effects of video games playing addiction? Essay topic generator Instead of browsing Google and spending hours trying to come up with a cause and effect essay topic, you can just use Edusson Magic Help. Essay examples Use Edusson Magic Help essay samples to see how other students wrote their own cause and effect essays.

Essay checker Essay checker called RobotDon is a highly practical platform and the best tool a student can use when writing an essay. The Job of Essay Proofreader: Log in with Facebook. Unfortunately, the media and politicians often jump upon scientific results and proclaim that it conveniently fits their beliefs and policies.

Some scientists, fixated upon 'proving' that their view of the world is correct, leak their results to the press before allowing the peer review process to check and validate their work. Some examples of this are rife in alternative therapy, when a group of scientists announces that they have found the next healthy superfood or that a certain treatment cured swine flu.

Many of these claims deviate from the scientific process and pay little heed to cause and effect, diluting the claims of genuine researchers in the field. The key principle of establishing cause and effect is proving that the effects seen in the experiment happened after the cause.

This seems to be an extremely obvious statement, but that is not always the case. Natural phenomena are complicated and intertwined, often overlapping and making it difficult to establish a natural order. Think about it this way: However, is this necessarily the case? Depression could be the cause that makes people drink more but it is equally possible that heavy consumption of alcohol, a depressant, makes people more depressed.

This type of classic 'chicken and egg' argument makes establishing causality one of the most difficult aspects of scientific research. It is also one of the most important factors, because it can misdirect scientists.

It also leaves the research open to manipulation by interest groups, who will take the results and proclaim them as a truth. With the above example, an alcoholic drink manufacturer could use the second interpretation to claim that alcohol is not a factor in depression and that the responsibility is upon society to ensure that people do not become depressed.

An anti-alcohol group, on the other hand, could claim that alcohol is harmful and use the results to lobby for harsher drinking laws. The same research leads to two different interpretations and, the answer given to the media can depend upon who funds the work.

Unfortunately, most of the general public are not scientists and cannot be expected to filter every single news item that they read for quality or delve into which group funded research. Even respected and trusted newspapers, journals and internet resources can fall into the causality trap, so marketing groups can influence perceptions. The other problem with causality is that a researcher cannot always guarantee that their particular manipulation of a variable was the sole reason for the perceived trends and correlation.

In a complex experiment, it is often difficult to isolate and neutralize the influence of confounding variables. This makes it exceptionally difficult for the researcher to state that their treatment is the sole cause, so any research program must contain measures to establish the cause and effect relationship.

In the physical sciences, such as physics and chemistry, it is fairly easy to establish causality, because a good experimental design can neutralize any potentially confounding variables. Sociology, at the other extreme, is exceptionally prone to causality issues, because individual humans and social groups vary so wildly and are subjected to a wide range of external pressures and influences. For results to have any meaning, a researcher must make causality the first priority, simply because it can have such a devastating effect upon validity.

Most experiments with some validity issues can be salvaged, and produce some usable data. An experiment with no established cause and effect, on the other hand, will be practically useless and a waste of resources. The first thing to remember with causality, especially in the non-physical sciences, is that it is impossible to establish complete causality.

The only way to do this is through a strong and well-considered experimental design, often containing pilot studies to establish cause and effect before plowing on with a complex and expensive study. The temporal factor is usually the easiest aspect to neutralize, simply because most experiments involve administering a treatment and then observing the effects, giving a linear temporal relationship.

Most researchers performing such a program will supplement it with a series of individual case studies, and interviewing a selection of the participants , in depth, will allow the researchers to find the order of events. For example, interviewing a sample of the depressed heavy drinkers will establish whether they felt that they were depressed before they started drinking or if the depression came later. The process of establishing cause and effect is a matter of ensuring that the potential influence of 'missing variables' is minimized.

One notable example, by the researchers Balnaves and Caputi, looked at the academic performance of university students and attempted to find a correlation with age.

Indeed, they found that older, more mature students performed significantly better. However, as they pointed out, you cannot simply say that age causes the effect of making people into better students.

Such a simplistic assumption is called a spurious relationship, the process of 'leaping to conclusions. In fact, there is a whole host of reasons why a mature student performs better: Mature students may well have made a great financial sacrifice, so they are a little more determined to succeed. Establishing cause and effect is extremely difficult in this case, so the researchers interpreted the results very carefully.

Another example is the idea that because people who eat a lot of extra virgin olive oil live for longer, olive oil makes people live longer. While there is some truth behind this, you have to remember that most regular olive oil eaters also eat a Mediterranean diet, have active lifestyles, and generally less stress.

These also have a strong influence, so any such research program should include studies into the effect of these - this is why a research program is not always a single experiment but often a series of experiments. One of the biggest threats to internal validity through incorrect application of cause and effect is the 'history' threat. This is where another event actually caused the effect noticed, rather than your treatment or manipulation.

Most researchers perform a pre-test upon a group, administer the treatment and then measure the post-test results pretest-posttest-design.

If the results are better, it is easy to assume that the treatment caused the result, but this is not necessarily the case. For example, take the case of an educational researcher wishing to measure the effect of a new teaching method upon the mathematical aptitude of students. They pre-test, teach the new program for a few months and then posttest.


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Cause and effect is one of the most commonly misunderstood concepts in science and is often misused by lawyers, the media, politicians and even scientists themselves, in .

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Establishing Cause and Effect. A central goal of most research is the identification of causal relationships, or demonstrating that a particular independent variable (the cause) has an effect on the dependent variable of interest (the effect).

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A cause and effect research paper is custom written by the writers at Paper Masters and will explore the cause and effect of any type of phenomena you need. As one of our frequent research paper topics, below we outline how to write a cause and effect paper. Establishing Cause & Effect. Establishing a Cause-Effect Relationship. How do we establish a cause-effect (causal) relationship? Typically the most difficult criterion to meet is the third -- ruling out alternative explanations for the observed effect. That is why research design is such an important issue and why it is intimately linked to.

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Apr 25,  · Cause and Effect Essay Topics. Updated on April 10, Virginia Kearney. more. What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA Reviews: 1 A GUIDE TO WRITING A CAUSE AND EFFECT RESEARCH PAPER What is a Cause and Effect Research Paper? You’re probably wondering what this “freshman research paper .